Researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) are using the fruit fly to discover how the brain integrates multiple signals to identify one unique smell. It's work that has broader implication for how flies – and ultimately, people – learn. In work published today in Nature Neuroscience, a team led by Associate Professor Glenn Turner describes how a group of neurons in the fruit fly brain recognize multiple individual chemicals in combination in order to define, or remember, a single scent.
Kenyon cell claws (indicated with boxes) extend from a single cell body in the fruit fly brain. CSHL researchers have found that each claw responds to different chemical compounds, and multiple claws must be stimulated in order for the Kenyon cell to become active. In this way, the Kenyon cells are the integration point that allows the fly to "remember" a smell.
Credit: Turner Lab, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
The olfactory system of a fruit fly begins at the equivalent of our nose, where a series of neurons sense and respond to very specific chemicals. These neurons pass their signal on to a group of cells called projection neurons. Then the signal undergoes a transformation as it is passed to a body of neurons in the fly brain called Kenyon cells.
Kenyon cells have multiple, extremely long protrusions that grasp the projection neurons with a claw-like structure. Each Kenyon cell claw is wrapped tightly around only one projection neuron, meaning that it receives a signal from just one type of input. In addition to their unique structure, Kenyon cells are also remarkable for their selectivity. Because they're selective, they aren't often activated. Yet little is known about what in fact makes them decide to fire a signal.
Turner and colleague Eyal Gruntman, who is lead author on their new paper, used cutting-edge microscopy to explore the chemical response profile for multiple claws on one Kenyon cell. They found that each claw, even on a single Kenyon cell, responded to different chemicals. Additional experiments using light to stimulate individual neurons (a technique called optogenetics) revealed that single Kenyon cells were only activated when several of their claws were simultaneously stimulated, explaining why they so rarely fire. Taken together, this work explains how individual Kenyon cells can integrate multiple signals in the brain to "remember" the particular chemical mixture as a single, distinct odor .
Turner will next try to determine "what controls which claws are connected," which will provide insight into how the brain learns to assign a specific mix of chemicals as defining a particular scent. But beyond simple odor detection, the research has more general implications for learning. For Turner, the question driving his work forward is: what in the brain changes when you learn something?
The research described in this release was supported by the Elisabeth Sloan Livingston fellowship from the Watson School of Biological Sciences. and the US National Institutes of Health grant R01 DC010403-01A1.
"Integration of the olfactory code across dendritic claws of single mushroom body neurons" appears online ahead of print in Nature Neuroscience on October 20, 2013. The authors are: Eyal Gruntman and Glenn Turner. The paper can be obtained online at: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1038/NN.3547About Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Jaclyn Jansen | EurekAlert!
In focus: Peptides, the “little brothers and sisters” of proteins
12.11.2018 | Technische Universität Berlin
How to produce fluorescent nanoparticles for medical applications in a nuclear reactor
09.11.2018 | Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences (IOCB Prague)
Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.
In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...
On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.
When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure
Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...
Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly
The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...
Scientists developed specially coated nanometer-sized vehicles that can be actively moved through dense tissue like the vitreous of the eye. So far, the transport of nano-vehicles has only been demonstrated in model systems or biological fluids, but not in real tissue. The work was published in the journal Science Advances and constitutes one step further towards nanorobots becoming minimally-invasive tools for precisely delivering medicine to where it is needed.
Researchers of the “Micro, Nano and Molecular Systems” Lab at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, together with an international...
09.11.2018 | Event News
06.11.2018 | Event News
23.10.2018 | Event News
12.11.2018 | Life Sciences
12.11.2018 | Materials Sciences
12.11.2018 | Physics and Astronomy