Unique muscles let chameleons fire at food.
Chameleons can reel in prey anywhere within two-and-a-half body lengths of their jaws. Their tongues can overcome even a bird’s weight and reluctance to be eaten. How? Muscles that are unique among backboned animals, researchers now reveal.
Anthony Herrel of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, and colleagues put crickets at different distances from the noses of two chameleon species, Chameleo calyptratus and Chameleo oustaletti. The tongues of these 12-cm-long reptiles pull at maximum strength on prey from 5-30 centimetres away, the team found.
Such versatility is beyond normal muscle: "it wouldn’t be able to pull back," says Herrel. Muscle usually reaches its limit when its tiny pistons - filaments that slide back and forth over one another - are fully closed.
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