Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

La Jolla Institute unlocks mystery of potentially fatal reaction to smallpox vaccine

27.05.2009
Research team is part of NIH network working toward new smallpox vaccine for eczema sufferers

Researchers from the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology have pinpointed the cellular defect that increases the likelihood, among eczema sufferers, of developing eczema vaccinatum, a severe and potentially fatal reaction to the smallpox vaccine.

The research, conducted in mouse models, was funded under a special research network created by the National Institutes of Health in 2004. The network is working toward the development of a new smallpox vaccine that could be administered to the millions of Americans who suffer from atopic dermatitis, a chronic, itchy skin condition commonly referred to as eczema.

The La Jolla Institute's Toshiaki and Yuko Kawakami, M.D.s, Ph.D.s., a husband and wife scientific team, led the research group which found that activity levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells played a pivotal role in the development of eczema vaccinatum in the mice. The activity of the NK cells, which are disease fighting cells of the immune system, was significantly lower in the mice that developed eczema vaccinatum than in normal mice that also received the smallpox vaccine. This knowledge opens the door to one day developing therapies that could potentially boost NK cell activity in eczema sufferers.

"Since atopic dermatitis affects as many as 17 percent of children in the U. S. and since eczema vaccinatum carries a fatality rate of 5-10 percent, therapies that prevent or treat eczema vaccinatum successfully are crucial should the need for mass vaccination against smallpox arise in response to bioterrorism," said Harvard pediatrics professor Raif S. Geha, M.D., chief of immunology at Boston Children's Hospital and a principal investigator in the NIH funded network investigating eczema vaccinatum. "The discovery of the Kawakami team, who are participants in the NIH network, is an important step towards this goal."

People with active atopic dermatitis (eczema), or who have outgrown atopic dermatitis, and the people they live with currently cannot receive smallpox vaccinations because of the risk of eczema vaccinatum. While uncommon, eczema vaccinatum can develop when atopic dermatitis patients are given the smallpox vaccine or come into close personal contact with people who recently received the vaccine. It is estimated that a significant portion of the U.S. population is currently not eligible for smallpox vaccination.

"This discovery answers an important question that has long eluded the scientific community, "why people with atopic dermatitis were susceptible to developing eczema vaccinatum upon receiving the smallpox vaccine, while the general population was not," said Mitchell Kronenberg, the La Jolla Institute's president & scientific director. "It marks a significant advance toward the goal of ensuring that everyone can one day be protected against the smallpox virus."

The finding was published today in the online version of the Journal of Experimental Medicine in a paper entitled, "Inhibition of NK cell activity by IL-17 allows vaccinia virus to induce severe skin lesions in a mouse model of eczema vaccinatum." La Jolla Institute scientist Shane Crotty, Ph.D., also contributed to the study.

Regarded as the deadliest disease ever known to man, smallpox was officially eradicated worldwide in 1980 and routine vaccinations against the disease ended in the U.S in 1972. However, bioterrorism concerns have arisen over recent years regarding the deliberate distribution of the smallpox virus, which might make smallpox vaccinations once again necessary. Such concerns led to the creation of the Atopic Dermatitis and Vaccinia Network (ADVN), a consortium of medical and research institutions nationwide developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. The network, which provided grant funding for the Kawakami's studies under NIH contact N01-AI40030C, was launched in 2004 with the goal of developing a new smallpox vaccine that would be safe for atopic dermatitis sufferers. It includes three consortiums, involving data, clinical testing and animal studies, of which Drs. Kawakami and the La Jolla Institute are members.

The Animal Studies Consortium was created to establish animal models of atopic dermatitis and investigate their immune responses to vaccinia — the virus used in smallpox vaccine. Drs. Kawakami were invited to join the consortium due to their creation of a new, more effective atopic dermatitis mouse model in 2004.

In their study, Drs. Kawakami showed that eczema-infected mice had higher levels of IL-17 cells, which are known to inhibit NK cell activity. "This higher level of IL-17 cells slowed down the ability of the NK cells to kill the vaccinia virus," said Yuko Kawakami, noting people with atopic dermatitis are also known to have higher numbers of IL-17 producing cells. "This led to the development of eczema vaccinatum when these mice received the smallpox vaccine."

Drs. Kawakami tested their theory by stimulating more NK cell activity in the eczema-infected mice. The higher activity led to the elimination of the eczema vaccinatum infection. "We are very excited by these findings, " said Toshiaki Kawakami. "Developing a safer smallpox vaccine is the most important thing in this field."

About La Jolla Institute

Founded in 1988, the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology is a nonprofit medical research center dedicated to increasing knowledge and improving human health through studies of the immune system. Scientists at the institute carry out research searching for cures for cancer, allergy and asthma, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis. La Jolla Institute's research staff includes more than 100 Ph.Ds and M.D.s.

Bonnie Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.liai.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

nachricht Chlamydia: How bacteria take over control
28.03.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers create artificial materials atom-by-atom

28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers show p300 protein may suppress leukemia in MDS patients

28.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias

28.03.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>