Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Critical Protein Discovered for Healthy Cell Growth in Mammals

28.01.2014
A team of researchers from Penn State University and the University of California has discovered a protein that is required for the growth of tiny, but critical, hair-like structures called cilia on cell surfaces.

The discovery has important implications for human health because lack of cilia can lead to serious diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, blindness and neurological disorders.


Using mouse models, Penn State cellular biologist Aimin Liu and his colleagues discovered a protein that is required for the growth of critical, hair-like structures called cilia on cell surfaces. The cilia on a mouse embryo, shown in this micrograph, would not be able to grow without the protein C2cd3. Credit: Aimin Liu Lab, Penn State University.

"If we want to better understand and treat diseases related to cilium development, we need to identify important regulators of cilium growth and learn how those regulators function," said co-author Aimin Liu, associate professor of biology at Penn State. "This work gives us significant insight into one of the earliest steps in cilium formation."

The researchers describe their findings in a paper that will be published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences during the week of 27 January 2014. In addition to Liu, authors include Penn State cellular biologists Xuan Ye, Huiqing Zeng and Gang Ning, as well as Jeremy F. Reiter, a biophysicist at the University of California - San Francisco.

Cilia, which are present on the surface of almost all mammalian cells, are responsible for sending, receiving, and processing information within the body. "You could think of cilia as the cells' antennae," Liu said. "Without cilia, the cells can't sense what's going on around them, and they can't communicate." Cilia also perform important filtering and cleansing functions. For example, cilia inside the trachea, or windpipe, trap and prevent bacteria from entering the lungs.

In a previous study, Liu and his colleagues learned that a protein called C2cd3 is important for cilium formation because mice that lacked this protein exhibited severe developmental problems typically associated with the lack of cilia. "At the time we knew only that if we get rid of the protein, the cells in the animal would not grow cilia," Liu said. "We didn't understand why, but now we do."

A cilium grows from a centriole, a structure that clings to the inner surface of the cell and serves as an anchor for the cilium. Before a cell can grow a cilium, it needs to assemble a set of appendages at one end of the centriole. These appendages can then connect the centriole to the cell surface, allowing the outgrowth of a cilium. Just how these appendages are assembled, though, remained a mystery for more than four decades since their discovery in 1962.

Liu and his colleagues found that appendages were not assembled at the end of the centriole when the C2cd3 protein is not present. As a result, the centriole is not associated with the cell membrane and cannot recruit other proteins for the further growth of the cilium. "So our protein is required for the very first step of putting a cilium together," Liu explained. "Without those appendages, the cilium growth cannot happen."

The researchers hope their discovery will lead to greater knowledge of the process of cilium development and, eventually, to treatments for a wide range of health problems that fall under the label of ciliopathy. "Ciliopathy is a scientific term that covers a lot of diseases," Liu said. As well as contributing to cystic disorders in the kidney and liver, lack of cilia can lead to blindness or deafness, since cilia in the retina serve as receptors that process light stimulation and cilia within the ear are required in neurons that translate sound waves into neural signals.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (R01AR054396, R01GM095941), the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Packard Foundation, the Program for Breakthrough Biomedical Research, an American Heart Association Scientist Development Grant (0830174N) and Penn State University.

Contacts:
Aimin Liu: axl25@psu.edu, (+1) 814-865-7043
Barbara Kennedy (PIO): science@psu.edu, 814-863-4682

Krista Weidner | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.psu.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Learning from Nature: Genomic database standard alleviates search for novel antibiotics
02.09.2015 | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie

nachricht Orang-utan females prefer cheek-padded males
02.09.2015 | Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from University of Arizona geoscientists. The study is the first to explain how the steep-fronted plateau formed.

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from...

Im Focus: An engineered surface unsticks sticky water droplets

The leaves of the lotus flower, and other natural surfaces that repel water and dirt, have been the model for many types of engineered liquid-repelling surfaces. As slippery as these surfaces are, however, tiny water droplets still stick to them. Now, Penn State researchers have developed nano/micro-textured, highly slippery surfaces able to outperform these naturally inspired coatings, particularly when the water is a vapor or tiny droplets.

Enhancing the mobility of liquid droplets on rough surfaces could improve condensation heat transfer for power-plant heat exchangers, create more efficient...

Im Focus: Increasingly severe disturbances weaken world's temperate forests

Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.

"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...

Im Focus: OU astrophysicist and collaborators find supermassive black holes in quasar nearest Earth

A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist and his Chinese collaborator have found two supermassive black holes in Markarian 231, the nearest quasar to Earth, using observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

The discovery of two supermassive black holes--one larger one and a second, smaller one--are evidence of a binary black hole and suggests that supermassive...

Im Focus: What would a tsunami in the Mediterranean look like?

A team of European researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece. The study is published today (27 August) in Ocean Science, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Though not as frequent as in the Pacific and Indian oceans, tsunamis also occur in the Mediterranean, mainly due to earthquakes generated when the African...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking conference in Heidelberg for outstanding mathematicians and computer scientists

20.08.2015 | Event News

Scientists meet in Münster for the world’s largest Chitin und Chitosan Conference

20.08.2015 | Event News

Large agribusiness management strategies

19.08.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tiny Drops of Early Universe 'Perfect' Fluid

02.09.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

Learning from Nature: Genomic database standard alleviates search for novel antibiotics

02.09.2015 | Life Sciences

International research project gets high level of funding

02.09.2015 | Awards Funding

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>