Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ecologists: Screen Plant Imports to Foil Invasives

09.01.2012
A recent analysis led by ecologist Bethany Bradley at the University of Massachusetts Amherst suggests that climate change predicted for the United States will boost demand for imported drought- and heat-tolerant landscaping plants from Africa and the Middle East.

This greatly increases the risk that a new wave of invasives will overrun native ecosystems in the way kudzu, Oriental bittersweet and purple loosestrife have in the past, members of the international team say.

The kudzu invasion of the past few decades saw whole forests overgrown in the Southeast, along with hedgerows, power lines and even houses. In wetlands across the nation, purple loosestrife is crowding out native marsh plants, and Oriental bittersweet, if left unchecked, shades and chokes out native trees, bushes and shrubs along streams, forest and field edges.

Bradley and colleagues recommend that U.S. authorities adopt proactive management practices, in particular pre-emptive screening of nursery stock before new plants are imported, to prevent such an explosion of new invasives. Their conclusions appear in an early online edition of the Feb. 1 issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

As the UMass Amherst environmental conservationist and lead author explains, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has proposed the Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis (NAPPRA) rule to regulate the industry. The rule would require importers to notify the USDA of proposed imports. USDA scientists would then conduct a timely risk assessment and issue a recommendation to allow or curtail the import.

“Our study identifies climate change as a risk, which combined with other factors is likely to increase demand for imported heat- and drought-tolerant plants, but this emerging threat is one that policy can effectively address,” Bradley says. “The USDA has tools to reduce import risk and we advocate that now is the time put them in place. Pre-import screening has been tested in Australia for about 10 years now and it’s not foolproof, but it seems to have done a good job of separating the really bad import ideas from more benign introductions.”

Not all imported plants become invasive, but those that do can become a significant threat to native plants and we should not be complacent about the current situation, she says. About 60 percent of plants now considered invasive were introduced deliberately through the plant trade. The other 40 percent are human-related accidental introductions such as seeds stuck in cargo or shipping containers. Only a tiny fraction of non-native introductions are from natural causes such as blowing in with a hurricane, Bradley says.

She and colleagues point out that rising average temperatures in certain regions of the U.S. are already shifting plant hardiness zones northward and the trend is expected to continue globally. Their study suggests that with the earlier onset of spring, warmer winters, economic globalization and increased trade with emerging economies in Asia and Africa, we may face a significant new wave of invasive plant introductions.

For this analysis of the intersection of global trade and climate change, the ecologists used import values from 1989 to 2010 to identify emerging trade partners, because earlier studies had established a clear link between increased trade and the number of invasive species. They found 42 emerging trade partners poised to supply new nursery plant varieties including Thailand, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, Argentina and several in equatorial Africa.

The rate of introduction is steepest in the early stages of new trade relationships, the authors say. “Unfortunately, increasing the variety and availability of non-native, drought-tolerant species could also increase the probability of introducing species capable of invading dryland regions.” Bradley adds, “In the desert Southwest this has already been happening with xeriscaping, which is becoming more and more popular.” Xeriscaping refers to gardening with low or no need for watering.

Bradley and colleagues’ work focuses on introduction, the first of three stages of invasion, because “stopping invasions before they start is the most effective way of preventing widespread ecological and economic impacts,” she says. “Globalization has accelerated the rate of introduction from a few species at the first colonization of North America to now, when we probably see thousands of new species each year. All we need is another kudzu to have a big impact.”

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis.

Bethany Bradley | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.umass.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Bioinvasion on the rise
15.02.2017 | Universität Konstanz

nachricht Litter Levels in the Depths of the Arctic are On the Rise
10.02.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Decoding the genome's cryptic language

27.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>