Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tofu-like crystalline catalysts for producing clean energy

19.09.2013
Research by Professor Jian-Ren Shen at Okayama University demystifies the reaction mechanisms of photosynthesis and the findings may lead to the development of methods for producing an unlimited source of clean energy.

Professor Jian-Ren Shen is recognized for his pioneering research on clarifying the fundamental reaction mechanism that governs photosynthetic water splitting, a process with fundamental importance in understanding how oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, use energy from sunlight, water, and CO2 to survive.


Structure of PS II dimer

“I first started research on photosynthetic proteins in the beginning of my doctorate project,” says Shen. “Our findings published in 2011 were based on x-ray diffraction experiments of large, high quality single crystal of so-called ‘photosystem II’ (PS II) at Japan’s SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility at Harima. The ability to produce large sized, single crystals of PS II, an extremely large membrane-protein complex, was critical for determining the crystalline structure of this protein complex to a resolution of 1.9 Angstroms. These results are the culmination of 20 years of my life spent on the development and improvement of the process to produce such large crystals.”

Professor Shen’s initial research on photosynthesis was focused on clarifying the effects of air pollution on plants. The objectives of this research necessitated clarification of the fundamental mechanism underlying photosynthesis, which in turn required the production of a high quality crystal of PS II. “After many years of exhaustive experiments and uncountable failures, we eventually succeeded in producing large, ‘tofu-like’ single crystals of PS II with dimensions of 0.7 x 0.4 x 0.1 mm,” explains Shen. “This was a major breakthrough that led to the ultra-high resolution analysis of PS II.”

Recent reports on the crystallographic analysis of PS II can be traced back to the early 2000s but the results yielded only ‘fuzzy’ images because of imperfections in the samples. In contrast the 2011 findings by Shen and colleagues yielded unprecedented images of the core of the PS II protein, showing the existence of cubic-core of four manganese atoms, five oxygen atoms, and a calcium atom, which constitutes the heart of plant life (Science 2011, 334, 1630).

“This cubic structure of Mn4CaO5 acts as a catalyst for the water splitting reaction induced by sunlight,” explains Shen. “These results have many important practical applications including the possibility of synthesizing artificial catalyst to dissociate water into oxygen and hydrogen to produce electricity in fuel cells, for example.”

Indeed there is increasing interests in ‘artificial photosynthesis’ for the production of energy. But Professor Shen says that his group will focus on basic research on the reaction mechanism of PS II. “Our next goal is to clarify the so-called ‘intermediate structure’ of PS II,” says Shen. “To do so we require even higher resolution x-ray diffraction experiments at both space and time levels. We are planning to use the SACLA X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility in SPring-8 to achieve this. This will enable us to look at the movement of atoms during photosynthesis.”

Professor Shen’s contributions to clarifying the mechanisms underlying photosynthesis have received many accolades including the ‘Breakthrough of the Year’ for 2011 by AAAS Science; the 2012 Asahi Prize; and the launch of the Okayama University Photosynthesis Research Center on 1 April 2013.

Further information:
Okayama University
1-1-1 Tsushima-naka , Kita-ku ,
Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Planning and Public Information Division
E-mail: www-adm@adm.okayama-u.ac.jp
Website: http://www.okayama-u.ac.jp/index_e.html
About Okayama University
Okayama University is one of the largest comprehensive universities in Japan with roots going back to the Medical Training Place sponsored by the Lord of Okayama and established in 1870. Now with 1,300 faculty and 14,000 students, the University offers courses in specialties ranging from medicine and pharmacy to humanities and physical sciences. Okayama University is located in the heart of Japan approximately 3 hours west of Tokyo by Shinkansen.

Website: http://www.okayama-u.ac.jp/index_e.html

Journal information

1. Yasufumi Umena (1), Keisuke Kawakami (2), Jian-Ren Shen (2) and Nobuo Kamiya (1), Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 Å; Nature 473, 55–61, (2011).

DOI: 10.1038/nature09913

Affiliations
1 Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.

2 Division of Bioscience, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology/Faculty of Science; Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

Adarsh Sandhu | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.okayama-u.ac.jp/index_e.html
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht Researchers take next step toward fusion energy
16.11.2017 | Texas A&M University

nachricht Desert solar to fuel centuries of air travel
16.11.2017 | SolarPACES

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>