Rapid scientific and technological progress has resulted in the blurring of traditional industry boundaries and in the emergence of new product markets at the intersection of established industries. Ritvala’s doctoral research examines actors and institutions in a new market from the perspective of their interaction at the intersection of industries and geographical regions.
Ritvala explores the topic through the emergence of cholesterol-lowering functional foods, such as the plant sterol margarines of Raisio Group and Unilever. The regular use of such foods has been scientifically proved to reduce cholesterol and, hence, improve heart health. This innovation combines the food, pharmaceuticals and forest industries. In her doctoral research Ritvala concentrates in Finland and the U.S., where succeeding with functional foods have been particularly challenging. The research is mainly based on a wide range of interviews carried out with key researchers in the field, managers, authorities as well as associations and societies.
The dissertation research investigates the institutional change in the perceived relationship between dietary cholesterol and heart disease since the scientific research of the 1950s and the North Karelia project of the 1970s. The focus of the research is the later cross-industry cooperation in the cholesterol-lowering food innovation and its commercialization.
The results of the study imply that individual scientists are in a key position to create novel cross-disciplinary and cross-industry knowledge, which may release the old beliefs and create a legitimate base for a new market. The emergence of a new field is, however, a complex phenomenon which necessitates the participation of a wide range of actors. The study reveals that a brilliant invention or product does not sell by itself, but necessitates a broad base of support, the mobilisation of which appears to be tightly connected to the institutional structures of a particular time and space and power relations between industries. Instead of wrong strategic decisions stressed earlier, particularly established care practices were central in explaining the weak demand for the European cholesterol-lowering functional foods in the U.S. where the role of the pharmaceuticals industry is extremely strong. Hence, an actor in a new market must be able to assess institutional differences between host and home markets.
In contrast to the strong tendency of specialization in the development of societies, this research implies that a broad cross-disciplinary understanding at individual-level contributes to innovativeness at the intersection of established industries and disciplines. This result seems to point towards an interpretation that a broad individual-level perspective caused by limited resources is the strength of small countries and organisations. Ritvala urges management to encourage cross-disciplinary and cross-industry cooperation and to analyse institutional differences between markets during internationalisation.
Terhi Ollikainen | alfa
Corporate coworking as a driver of innovation
22.11.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation IAO
Mathematical confirmation: Rewiring financial networks reduces systemic risk
22.06.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
22.11.2017 | Business and Finance
22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy