Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New research shows positive welfare effects of natural resource extraction in Africa

02.06.2015

Ruthless exploitation, environmental disasters and refugees. That is a common narrative of the consequences of the extraction of natural resources in Africa. A new dissertation from the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg gives a more nuanced picture. Stronger labor market participation for women, more gender equality and halving infant death are also part of the recent expansion of mining in Africa.

“There are, of course, lots of problems with extractive industries – oil, natural gas and mineral mining – in Africa. But I have explored welfare determinants at local level, such as labor markets and measures of equality. The results paint a new, and partly surprising picture” says economist Anja Tolonen.


Anja Tolonen, PhD

University of Gothenburg

The dissertation contains some of the first large empirical studies done on the topic. One study explores women’s access to employment in mining areas using data on half a million women and 900 large mines across the continent.

“The opening of a new mine generates new jobs within the service sector. It can be, for example, restaurants or transportation. We see that women leave subsistence farming and start earning cash. But we also see that the effects are temporary – when the mine closes, the jobs disappear.”

In a specific study of gold mines in countries such as Ghana, Mali and Tanzania, the welfare effects have been explored in more detail. The results show that women have better access to health care when the mines are established. In part, this is explained by increased supply of health care locally, but also because women’s autonomy increases.

“We see several signs that norms change with the local economic development. Domestic violence is much less accepted by women in the studied mining areas” says Tolonen.

Moreover, infant mortality decreases drastically. Extremely high infant mortality is not uncommon in the countries in the study: 10 to 15 percent of children do not survive their first year of life. However, in the mining areas, the infant mortality rates halves.

“Even if there are environmental and health risks involved, such as the emission of toxins, it seems like the economic development and welfare effects brought by the mines offset the potential negative consequences.”

The thesis “Mining Booms in Africa and Local Welfare Effects: Labor Markets, Women’s Empowerment and Criminality” was defended on May 29th, 2015.
The Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg.

Read the thesis: http://hdl.handle.net/2077/38780

Contact:
Anja Tolonen, PhD
Phone: + 46 (0) 31 786 1264
anja.tolonen@economics.gu.se

Weitere Informationen:

http://handels.gu.se/english/about-the-School/press-and-news/newsdetail//new-res...

Henrik Axlid | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Business and Finance:

nachricht How Strong Brands Translate into Money
15.11.2016 | Kühne Logistics University - Wissenschaftliche Hochschule für Logistik und Unternehmensführung

nachricht Demographic change depresses tax revenues
04.11.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

All articles from Business and Finance >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>