When the Iron Curtain fell 20 years ago, there was considerable hope that the countries in Eastern Europe, including Russia, would introduce a market economy and democracy matching that of the West. The idea was that all companies would operate in accordance with the market-economic principles.
"These hopes have never been fully realised. What we see in Russia now is a complex economy with a number of different elements: the remnants of the state economy, large privatised companies, a small foreign-owned sector, and a very small proportion of new companies that emerged during the latter part of the 1990s," says Oksana Shmulyar Gréen, who is publicly defending a sociology doctoral thesis on Russian entrepreneurship.
Whereas previous research has focused mainly on reforms during the 1990s, Oksana S Gréen has chosen to look further back. The Russian economy of the mid 1800s and the Soviet era are compared to the conditions facing today's entrepreneurs following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.
A new generation of entrepreneursThis thesis looks in particular at Russia's new generation of entrepreneurs. These are young, well-educated entrepreneurs who grew up and were educated during the Soviet era, but whose first jobs and career opportunities came mainly during the latter part of the 1990s. Many of them applied to Western business schools in Russia in the hope of becoming professional entrepreneurs.
"This was the group with the most positive attitude towards the West and Western concepts of a market economy and entrepreneurship. But the theories they have been taught at various business schools have been difficult to realise in a Russian context."
The market economy in Russia still creates numerous barriers, which new economic players must overcome. In her thesis Oksana Shmulyar Gréen identifies formidable obstacles such as bureaucratic red tape, widespread corruption and the banking system's inability to offer the start-up capital required.
"There are also historical patterns which mean that the state still dominates within the economic sphere and that people lack faith in private ownership. In order for a market economy to function in a Russian context, there needs to be greater transparency and predictability in relationships between the state and the economy. Entrepreneurs themselves need to have more faith in their own abilities, both developing their own business skills and encouraging greater social welfare and openness."Title of the thesis: Entrepreneurship in Russia: Western ideas in Russian translation
Time and place of public defence of doctoral thesis: Friday, 4 December 2009.
Helena Aaberg | idw
Frugal Innovations: when less is more
19.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation IAO
Europe's microtechnology industry is attuned to growth
10.03.2017 | IVAM Fachverband für Mikrotechnik
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy