When the Iron Curtain fell 20 years ago, there was considerable hope that the countries in Eastern Europe, including Russia, would introduce a market economy and democracy matching that of the West. The idea was that all companies would operate in accordance with the market-economic principles.
"These hopes have never been fully realised. What we see in Russia now is a complex economy with a number of different elements: the remnants of the state economy, large privatised companies, a small foreign-owned sector, and a very small proportion of new companies that emerged during the latter part of the 1990s," says Oksana Shmulyar Gréen, who is publicly defending a sociology doctoral thesis on Russian entrepreneurship.
Whereas previous research has focused mainly on reforms during the 1990s, Oksana S Gréen has chosen to look further back. The Russian economy of the mid 1800s and the Soviet era are compared to the conditions facing today's entrepreneurs following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.
A new generation of entrepreneursThis thesis looks in particular at Russia's new generation of entrepreneurs. These are young, well-educated entrepreneurs who grew up and were educated during the Soviet era, but whose first jobs and career opportunities came mainly during the latter part of the 1990s. Many of them applied to Western business schools in Russia in the hope of becoming professional entrepreneurs.
"This was the group with the most positive attitude towards the West and Western concepts of a market economy and entrepreneurship. But the theories they have been taught at various business schools have been difficult to realise in a Russian context."
The market economy in Russia still creates numerous barriers, which new economic players must overcome. In her thesis Oksana Shmulyar Gréen identifies formidable obstacles such as bureaucratic red tape, widespread corruption and the banking system's inability to offer the start-up capital required.
"There are also historical patterns which mean that the state still dominates within the economic sphere and that people lack faith in private ownership. In order for a market economy to function in a Russian context, there needs to be greater transparency and predictability in relationships between the state and the economy. Entrepreneurs themselves need to have more faith in their own abilities, both developing their own business skills and encouraging greater social welfare and openness."Title of the thesis: Entrepreneurship in Russia: Western ideas in Russian translation
Time and place of public defence of doctoral thesis: Friday, 4 December 2009.
Helena Aaberg | idw
Europe's microtechnology industry is attuned to growth
10.03.2017 | IVAM Fachverband für Mikrotechnik
Preferential trade agreements enhance global trade at the expense of its resilience
17.02.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
28.03.2017 | Life Sciences
28.03.2017 | Information Technology
28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy