Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Special magnetic resonance imaging technique shows what frogs hear


A recent international study by Vetmeduni Vienna shows that manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers a powerful approach to studying brain activity in frogs. This opens up completely new possibilities for a better understanding of basic mechanisms of the vertebrate brain.

Acoustic signals play a vital role in animal life-history. Many animals use sound or vibrational cues to localize conspecifics such as mating partners or relatives, to identify predators, or to retrieve information about the emotional state of group members.


© Eva Ringler/Vetmeduni Vienna

In their everyday lives, however, animals are constantly exposed to a continuous stream of environmental sounds. For efficient communication, it is therefore important to pay particular attention to biologically relevant stimuli.

Frogs are important model organisms in bioacoustics

Frogs have long been recognized as excellent model organisms in bioacoustics and neurobiology. To date, however, most available methods for studying auditory processing in frogs are highly invasive and thus not suitable for long-term studies in which individual animals are repeatedly exposed to different types of stimuli.

The previously applied methods also do not provide a global view of the brain, which substantially limits the questions that can be addressed.

New research method allows better insight into frog brains

An international research group led by Eva Ringler from Vetmeduni Vienna’s Department of Comparative Cognition in cooperation with the Messerli Research Institute, a joint institution of Vetmeduni Vienna, MedUni Vienna and the University of Vienna, and the University of California Los Angeles therefore opted for a new, non-invasive method: manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), an MRI technique that employs manganese as a contrast agent for neuronal activity.

The goal of the study, which was recently published in the journal Behavioral Neuroscience, was to identify the areas of the frog’s brain that are responsible for auditory processing. Ringler explains: “We were interested in determining if the neuronal processing of socially relevant acoustic stimuli engages a specific pattern of brain activation that differs from patterns elicited by less- or non-relevant acoustic signals.”

Experiment with three different stimuli

The researchers designed an experiment using three different types of acoustic stimuli (conspecific calls, noise, and silence) to investigate the effect of these signals on the brain of Northern Leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). MEMRI imaging was then used to monitor manganese uptake in different regions of the brain, with higher manganese uptake being an indication of stronger neuronal activity in the affected areas of the brain. The MRI image revealed an increased signal intensity within these areas.

Greater response to species-specific acoustic signals

“We found the greatest change in signal intensity within the torus semicircularis (the principal central auditory region in frogs) and the habenula (a part of the midbrain). In contrast to conspecific acoustic signals, stimulation with noise did not result in the same activation patterns. This indicates that signals with contrasting social relevance are differentially processed in these areas of the amphibian brain,” says Ringler.

Surprisingly, the researchers did not find any significant enhancement in signal intensity in the amygdala, although this brain region is generally known to be important for the processing of memory-based, decision-making and emotional responses in vertebrates. Also interesting is that significant difference in signal intensity were only observed when comparing conspecific calls versus silence. Stimulation with noise did not result in statistically significant signal enhancement in the whole-brain analysis.

Important new method for imaging the brains of small animals

The present study demonstrates that MEMRI is a powerful approach for studying activity patterns in the brains of small animals, such as frogs, with high resolution. The MEMRI technique allows the study of the same subject over time and addresses the entire brain at once. New insights into the brains of smaller animals are of particular interest scientifically as some regions of the brain are not present in all vertebrates.

The cerebral cortex, for example, is unique to mammals. Moreover, only little is known about functional similarities of brain regions of different animal groups. The increased use of MEMRI could help to provide new fundamental insights into the functioning of the vertebrate brain in the future. Ringler: “Given the substantial difference between the brains of different vertebrate species, comparative approaches could help us investigate the architecture and functional connectivity of vertebrate neuronal structures and thus provide us with a more complete understanding of important but poorly understood biomechanical mechanisms of perception and attention.”

The article “MEMRI for visualizing brain activity after auditory stimulation in frogs” by Eva Ringler, Melissa Coates, Ariadna Cobo-Cuan, Neil G. Harris and Peter M. Narins was published in Behavioral Neuroscience.

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna
The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. The Vetmeduni Vienna plays in the global top league: in 2018, it occupies the excellent place 6 in the world-wide Shanghai University veterinary in the subject "Veterinary Science".

Wissenschaftliche Ansprechpartner:

Eva Ringler
Unit Comparative Cognition
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 650/9780208


Weitere Informationen:

Nina Grötschl | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Structual color barcode micromotors for multiplex biosensing
21.01.2020 | Science China Press

nachricht Cyanobacteria in water and on land identified as source of methane
21.01.2020 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A new look at 'strange metals'

For years, a new synthesis method has been developed at TU Wien (Vienna) to unlock the secrets of "strange metals". Now a breakthrough has been achieved. The results have been published in "Science".

Superconductors allow electrical current to flow without any resistance - but only below a certain critical temperature. Many materials have to be cooled down...

Im Focus: Programmable nests for cells

KIT researchers develop novel composites of DNA, silica particles, and carbon nanotubes -- Properties can be tailored to various applications

Using DNA, smallest silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed novel programmable materials....

Im Focus: Miniature double glazing: Material developed which is heat-insulating and heat-conducting at the same time

Styrofoam or copper - both materials have very different properties with regard to their ability to conduct heat. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz and the University of Bayreuth have now jointly developed and characterized a novel, extremely thin and transparent material that has different thermal conduction properties depending on the direction. While it can conduct heat extremely well in one direction, it shows good thermal insulation in the other direction.

Thermal insulation and thermal conduction play a crucial role in our everyday lives - from computer processors, where it is important to dissipate heat as...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IAF establishes an application laboratory for quantum sensors

In order to advance the transfer of research developments from the field of quantum sensor technology into industrial applications, an application laboratory is being established at Fraunhofer IAF. This will enable interested companies and especially regional SMEs and start-ups to evaluate the innovation potential of quantum sensors for their specific requirements. Both the state of Baden-Württemberg and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft are supporting the four-year project with one million euros each.

The application laboratory is being set up as part of the Fraunhofer lighthouse project »QMag«, short for quantum magnetometry. In this project, researchers...

Im Focus: How Cells Assemble Their Skeleton

Researchers study the formation of microtubules

Microtubules, filamentous structures within the cell, are required for many important processes, including cell division and intracellular transport. A...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

„Advanced Battery Power“- Conference, Contributions are welcome!

07.01.2020 | Event News

Latest News

A new look at 'strange metals'

21.01.2020 | Materials Sciences

Body's natural signal carriers can help melanoma spread

21.01.2020 | Health and Medicine

Structual color barcode micromotors for multiplex biosensing

21.01.2020 | Life Sciences

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>