Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New weapon against Diabetes

09.12.2016

ETH Researchers have used the simplest approach yet to produce artificial beta cells from human kidney cells. Like their natural model, the artificial cells act as both sugar sensors and insulin producers.

Researchers led by ETH Professor Martin Fussenegger at the Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering (D-BSSE) in Basel have produced artificial beta cells using a straightforward engineering approach.


Diagram of a HEK-beta cell

Graphics: ETH Zurich

The artificial beta cells can do everything that natural ones do: they measure the glucose concentration in the blood and produce enough insulin to effectively lower the blood sugar level. The ETH researchers presented their development in the latest edition of the journal Science.

Previous approaches were based on stem cells, which the scientists allowed to mature into beta cells either by adding growth factors or by incorporating complex genetic networks.

Minor reprogramming of HEK cells

For their new approach, the ETH researchers used a cell line based on human kidney cells, HEK cells. The researchers used the natural glucose transport proteins and potassium channels in the membrane of the HEK cells. They enhanced these with a voltage-dependent calcium channel and a gene for the production of insulin and GLP-1, a hormone involved in the regulation of the blood sugar level.

Voltage switch causes insulin production

In the artificial beta cells, the HEK cells’ natural glucose transport protein carries glucose from the bloodstream into the cell’s interior. When the blood sugar level exceeds a certain threshold, the potassium channels close. This flips the voltage distribution at the membrane, causing the calcium channels to open. As calcium flows in, it triggers the HEK cells’ built-in signalling cascade, leading to the production and secretion of insulin or GLP-1.

The initial tests of the artificial beta cells in diabetic mice revealed the cells to be extremely effective: “They worked better and for longer than any solution achieved anywhere in the world so far,” says Fussenegger. When implanted into diabetic mice, the modified HEK cells worked reliably for three weeks, producing sufficient quantities of the messengers that regulate blood sugar level.

Helpful modelling

In developing the artificial cells, the researchers had the help of a computer model created by researchers working under Jörg Stelling, another professor in ETH Zurich’s Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering (D-BSSE). The model allows predictions to be made of cell behaviour, which can be verified experimentally. “The data from the experiments and the values calculated using the models were almost identical,” says Fussenegger.

He and his group have been working on biotechnology-based solutions for diabetes therapy for a long time. Several months ago, they unveiled beta cells that had been grown from stem cells from a person’s fatty tissue. This technique is expensive, however, since the beta cells have to be produced individually for each patient. The new solution would be cheaper, as the system is suitable for all diabetics.

Market-readiness is a long way off

It remains uncertain, though, when these artificial beta cells will reach the market. They first have to undergo various clinical trials before they can be used in humans. Trials of this kind are expensive and often last several years. “If our cells clear all the hurdles, they could reach the market in 10 years,” the ETH professor estimates.

Diabetes is becoming the modern-day scourge of humanity. The International Diabetes Federation estimates that more than 640 million people worldwide will suffer from diabetes by 2040. Half a million people are affected in Switzerland today, with 40,000 of them suffering from type 1 diabetes, the form in which the body’s immune system completely destroys the insulin-producing beta cells.

Weitere Informationen:

https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2016/12/artificial-beta-cel...

Peter Rüegg | Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zürich)

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines
20.11.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Zellbiologie und Genetik

nachricht Researchers find social cultures in chimpanzees
20.11.2018 | Universität Leipzig

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

Max Planck researchers revel the nano-structure of molecular trains and the reason for smooth transport in cellular antennas.

Moving around, sensing the extracellular environment, and signaling to other cells are important for a cell to function properly. Responsible for those tasks...

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Optical Coherence Tomography: German-Japanese Research Alliance hosted Medical Imaging Conference

19.11.2018 | Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Sustainable energy supply in developing and emerging countries: What are the needs?

21.11.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

20.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Researchers find social cultures in chimpanzees

20.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>