Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Inner “clockwork” sets the time for cell division in bacteria

10.02.2020

Researchers at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel have discovered a “clockwork” mechanism that controls cell division in bacteria. In two publications, in “Nature Communications” und “PNAS”, they report how a small signaling molecule starts the “clock”, which informs the cell about the right time to reproduce.

The ability of pathogens to multiply in the host is crucial for the spread of infections. The speed of bacterial division greatly depends on the environmental conditions.


The signaling molecule c-di-GMP controls cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

Image: University of Basel, Swiss Nanoscience Institute/Biozentrum

Under unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, bacteria tend to pause after division and reproduce more slowly. But how do bacteria know, when it is time to enter the next round of cell division?

A team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, led by Prof. Urs Jenal has now identified a central switch for reproduction in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus: the signaling molecule c-di-GMP.

In their current study, published in the journal Nature Communications, they report that this molecule initiates a “clock-like” mechanism, which determines whether individual bacteria reproduce.

A signaling molecule regulates “clockwork” in bacteria

How long a cell pauses after division and how it then decides to engage in the next round of division is still poorly understood. The signaling molecule c-di-GMP plays a key role in this process.

“The rise in the c-di-GMP level sets the individual cogwheels of the cell’s clock into action, one after the other,” explains Jenal. “These cogwheels are enzymes called kinases. They prepare the transition of the cell from the resting to the division phase.”

Enzymes respond to c-di-GMP levels

Under favorable living conditions, newborn bacteria begin to produce the signaling molecule – this starts the clock ticking. The initially low c-di-GMP level activates a first kinase. This activates the expression of over 100 genes, which drive the cell towards division and boost the production of c-di-GMP.

The resulting peak levels of c-di-GMP finally stimulate the last wheel of the machinery, also a kinase. “With this step, the cell ultimately decides to replicate its DNA and to trigger cell division,” explains Jenal. “Simultaneously the over 100 genes are switched off again, as these are only important for the transition phase but obstruct later stages of proliferation.”

Insights into c-di-GMP mediated enzyme activation

In a parallel study, recently been published in PNAS, a team led by Prof. Tilman Schirmer, also at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, describes how c-di-GMP activates the first cogwheel of the newly discovered clock at the atomic level.

The researchers have revealed that the mobile domains of the kinase are initially locked in a fixed position. The binding of c-di-GMP liberates the domains, thereby activating the kinase for gene expression. “In our study, we have discovered a new mode of c-di-GMP mediated activation,” says Schirmer. “Once again, we are fascinated by the diverse ʻstrategiesʼ of this small molecule to regulate biochemical processes.”

Universal principle in bacterial reproduction

The c-di-GMP regulated timing of the bacterial cell cycle by this signaling molecule seems to be a universal mechanism. The researchers assume that this mechanism enables bacteria to precisely coordinate growth and development. The elucidation of this novel mechanism also contributes to a better understanding of the growth of bacterial pathogens.

Wissenschaftliche Ansprechpartner:

Prof. Dr. Urs Jenal, University of Basel, Biozentrum, tel. +41 61 207 21 35, email: urs.jenal@unibas.ch

Prof. Dr. Tilman Schirmer, University of Basel, Biozentrum, tel. +41 61 207 20 89, email: tilman.schirmer@unibas.ch

Originalpublikation:

Andreas Kaczmarczyk, Antje M. Hempel, Christoph von Arx, Raphael Böhm, Badri N. Dubey, Jutta Nesper, Tilman Schirmer, Sebastian Hiller and Urs Jenal
Precise timing of transcription by c-di-GMP coordinates cell cycle and morphogenesis in Caulobacter
Nature Communications (2020), doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-14585-6
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14585-6

Badri N. Dubey, Elia Agustoni, Raphael Böhm, Andreas Kaczmarczyk, Francesca Mangia, Christoph von Arx, Urs Jenal, Sebastian Hiller, Iván Plaza-Menacho, and Tilman Schirmer
Hybrid histidine kinase activation by cyclic di-GMP–mediated domain liberation
PNAS (2020), doi: 10.1073/pnas.1911427117
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911427117

Dr. Katrin Bühler | Universität Basel

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht When predictions of theoretical chemists become reality
22.05.2020 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht From artificial meat to fine-tuning photosynthesis: Food System Innovation – and how to get there
20.05.2020 | Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: I-call - When microimplants communicate with each other / Innovation driver digitization - "Smart Health“

Microelectronics as a key technology enables numerous innovations in the field of intelligent medical technology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT coordinates the BMBF cooperative project "I-call" realizing the first electronic system for ultrasound-based, safe and interference-resistant data transmission between implants in the human body.

When microelectronic systems are used for medical applications, they have to meet high requirements in terms of biocompatibility, reliability, energy...

Im Focus: When predictions of theoretical chemists become reality

Thomas Heine, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at TU Dresden, together with his team, first predicted a topological 2D polymer in 2019. Only one year later, an international team led by Italian researchers was able to synthesize these materials and experimentally prove their topological properties. For the renowned journal Nature Materials, this was the occasion to invite Thomas Heine to a News and Views article, which was published this week. Under the title "Making 2D Topological Polymers a reality" Prof. Heine describes how his theory became a reality.

Ultrathin materials are extremely interesting as building blocks for next generation nano electronic devices, as it is much easier to make circuits and other...

Im Focus: Rolling into the deep

Scientists took a leukocyte as the blueprint and developed a microrobot that has the size, shape and moving capabilities of a white blood cell. Simulating a blood vessel in a laboratory setting, they succeeded in magnetically navigating the ball-shaped microroller through this dynamic and dense environment. The drug-delivery vehicle withstood the simulated blood flow, pushing the developments in targeted drug delivery a step further: inside the body, there is no better access route to all tissues and organs than the circulatory system. A robot that could actually travel through this finely woven web would revolutionize the minimally-invasive treatment of illnesses.

A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) in Stuttgart invented a tiny microrobot that resembles a white blood cell...

Im Focus: NASA's Curiosity rover finds clues to chilly ancient Mars buried in rocks

By studying the chemical elements on Mars today -- including carbon and oxygen -- scientists can work backwards to piece together the history of a planet that once had the conditions necessary to support life.

Weaving this story, element by element, from roughly 140 million miles (225 million kilometers) away is a painstaking process. But scientists aren't the type...

Im Focus: Making quantum 'waves' in ultrathin materials

Study co-led by Berkeley Lab reveals how wavelike plasmons could power up a new class of sensing and photochemical technologies at the nanoscale

Wavelike, collective oscillations of electrons known as "plasmons" are very important for determining the optical and electronic properties of metals.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Dresden Nexus Conference 2020: Same Time, Virtual Format, Registration Opened

19.05.2020 | Event News

Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium AWK'21 will take place on June 10 and 11, 2021

07.04.2020 | Event News

International Coral Reef Symposium in Bremen Postponed by a Year

06.04.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Inexpensive retinal diagnostics via smartphone

25.05.2020 | Medical Engineering

Smart machine maintenance: New AI system also detects unknown faults

25.05.2020 | Information Technology

Artificial Intelligence for optimized mobile communication

25.05.2020 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>