Streptomyces bacteria are our primary source of antibiotics, which are produced in the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation in a complex developmental life cycle.
Previous research by Professor Mark Buttner's lab at the John Innes Centre has shown that the signalling molecule c-di-GMP binds BldD, a master repressor of gene activity, to control the initiation of development in these soil-dwelling bacteria.
c-di-GMP is an example of a nucleotide second messenger, an intracellular signal widespread in bacteria responsible for regulating crucial processes, including mobility, virulence and biofilm formation.
In a new study, experiments using the model species Streptomyces venezuelae show that c-di-GMP also intervenes later in development to control the differentiation of the reproductive hyphae into spores.
It does this by mediating an interaction between the major sporulation sigma factor in Streptomyces, WhiG, and the anti-sigma factor RsiG.
A sigma factor is a protein needed for the initiation of transcription, the process of turning DNA into RNA. Anti-sigma factors bind to the sigma and inhibit activity until the time is appropriate.
The study shows that RsiG and c-di-GMP bind and hide sigma WhiG, preventing its target genes being expressed and therefore stopping the reproductive hyphae turning into spores.
It is the first instance of c-di-GMP binding to a sigma factor and affecting its functionality.
First author of the study Dr Kelley Gallagher says: "As a result of this discovery, it is now clear that c-di-GMP signals through BldD and sigma WhiG respectively to control the two most dramatic transitions of the Streptomyces life cycle, the formation of the reproductive aerial hyphae and their differentiation into spore chains. In both cases, c-di-GMP functions as a brake."
"c-di-GMP arms an anti-σ to control progression of multicellular differentiation in Streptomyces" appears in the journal Molecular Cell
Adrian Galvin | EurekAlert!
A new 'cool' blue
17.01.2020 | American Chemical Society
Neuromuscular organoid: It’s contracting!
17.01.2020 | Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
Styrofoam or copper - both materials have very different properties with regard to their ability to conduct heat. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz and the University of Bayreuth have now jointly developed and characterized a novel, extremely thin and transparent material that has different thermal conduction properties depending on the direction. While it can conduct heat extremely well in one direction, it shows good thermal insulation in the other direction.
Thermal insulation and thermal conduction play a crucial role in our everyday lives - from computer processors, where it is important to dissipate heat as...
In order to advance the transfer of research developments from the field of quantum sensor technology into industrial applications, an application laboratory is being established at Fraunhofer IAF. This will enable interested companies and especially regional SMEs and start-ups to evaluate the innovation potential of quantum sensors for their specific requirements. Both the state of Baden-Württemberg and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft are supporting the four-year project with one million euros each.
The application laboratory is being set up as part of the Fraunhofer lighthouse project »QMag«, short for quantum magnetometry. In this project, researchers...
Microtubules, filamentous structures within the cell, are required for many important processes, including cell division and intracellular transport. A...
Researchers from the University Hospital Zurich, ETH Zurich, Wyss Zurich and the University of Zurich have developed a machine that repairs injured human livers and keep them alive outside the body for one week. This breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer.
Until now, livers could be stored safely outside the body for only a few hours. With the novel perfusion technology, livers - and even injured livers - can now...
A balloon-borne scientific instrument designed to study the origin of cosmic rays is taking its second turn high above the continent of Antarctica three and a half weeks after its launch.
SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is designed to measure the rare, heavy elements in cosmic rays that hold clues about their origins...
16.01.2020 | Event News
15.01.2020 | Event News
07.01.2020 | Event News
17.01.2020 | Life Sciences
17.01.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering
17.01.2020 | Life Sciences