Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Developmental Leaps on the Way to Becoming a Plant

11.07.2017

German-Israeli research team under the leadership of Kiel University discovers evolutionary origin of redox regulation in plants

During the development of higher life forms over the course of millions of years, there have always been significant and comparatively sudden leaps in development. As a consequence, living organisms developed new skills and conquered additional habitats.


Phaeodactylum tricornutum cells showing fluorescent organelles: The nucleus is coloured in green, chloroplasts appear in red.

Image: Shiri Graff van Creveld, The Weizmann Institute of Science

In this process they adopted these abilities partly from their predecessor organisms: For example the plastids of the plants, the place where photosynthesis takes place, were originally autonomous unicellular living organisms.

The developmental transformation of cyanobacteria into such cell organelles - the endosymbiosis, provided the plant cell with the ability to photosynthesize and thus the ability to produce energy from sunlight. Apparently, a similarly important common characteristic of plants and higher living organisms developed in a comparable manner:

An international research team from the Institute of General Microbiology at Kiel University (CAU) and from the Israeli Weizmann Institute of Science has found evidence that the redox regulation in plant metabolism has its origin in two successive plastid endosymbiosis events. The results of the work funded by the Kiel Cluster of Excellence “The Future Ocean” have recently been published by the international research team in the renowned journal Nature Plants.

The development of plastids is of fundamental importance in the evolution of plants. Seen from a global perspective, plastids also boosted the so-called primary production, and thus provided oxygen and the nutritional basis for all life on Earth. To an extent, the cell paid an evolutionary price for the newly acquired advantage of energy production through photosynthesis. It had to react to the formation of highly reactive and potentially harmful byproducts, the radicals.

Interestingly, cells have evolved the ability to sense the level of free radicals and use this information to regulate their metabolic activity by a unique type of control mechanism - redox regulation. Since oxygen in particular tends to develop radical molecules, the redox regulation gained its importance with the higher availability of oxygen in Earth’s past – a time period, which is associated with the fundamental developmental leap to multicellar life forms.

In order to investigate the evolutionary origin of redox regulation, Dr. Christian Wöhle, research associate in the working group Genomic Microbiology at Kiel University, compared the redox regulated protein network of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to living organisms of various other phyla. As an evolutionarily quite simple life form, the diatom already has traits of more highly developed organisms; like plants it is able to carry out photosynthesis. In this manner, this model organism allows conclusions to higher developed plant and animal life forms to be drawn.

Together with their international colleagues, the researchers from Kiel recognized that the development of the redox regulation of higher living organisms coincided with the process of a multistage plastid endosymbiosis. Comparison with the protein sequences of diverse predecessor organisms has shown that a sudden increase in the occurrence of redox regulated proteins took place in the predecessors of the diatoms, at the same time as the first plastids were taken up.

The redox sensitive proteins change their biochemical characteristics if they come into contact with radicals. In this manner they allow the organism to adjust its metabolism to changing environmental conditions. “We were able to observe that the proteins, which are responsible for metabolism in the development of complex plant organisms always changed when new cell organelles were added”, emphasizes Wöhle, lead author of the study.

The mechanism by which the diatoms acquired the ability to be redox-regulated consists in a transition of the genetic information from the subsequently acquired plastids into the genome of the receptive organism. The scientists found out that more than half of the genes involved in the redox regulation originate from unicellular organisms, in this case cyanobacteria.

This observation supports the theory of the research team that the cell’s ability to conduct redox regulation developed through endosymbiotic gene transfer and thus laid the foundation for the development of higher plants.

“Our results allow insight into the evolutionary adaptation of life to photosynthetic energy production and the resulting required expanded regulation mechanisms of the plant cell. They help us to better understand the reaction of different organisms to a long-term change in their living conditions,” summarizes co-author Professor Tal Dagan, head of the working group Genomic Microbiology at Kiel University and member of the “Kiel Evolution Center” (KEC).

Original work:
Christian Wöhle, Tal Dagan, Giddy Landan, Assaf Vardi & Shilo Rosenwasser “Expansion of the redox-sensitive proteome coincides with the plastid endosymbiosis” Nature Plants, Published on May 15, 2017, https://www.nature.com/articles/nplants201766

Images for download under:
http://www.uni-kiel.de/download/pm/2017/2017-225-1.jpg
Caption: Phaeodactylum tricornutum cells showing fluorescent organelles: The nucleus is coloured in green, chloroplasts appear in red.
Image: Shiri Graff van Creveld, The Weizmann Institute of Science

Contact:
Prof. Tal Dagan
Genomic Microbiology
Institute of General Microbiology, Kiel University
Telephone: 0431 880-5712
E-Mail: tdagan@ifam.uni-kiel.de

Dr. Christian Wöhle
Genomic Microbiology
Institute of General Microbiology, Kiel University
Telephone: 0431 880-5744
E-Mail: cwoehle@ifam.uni-kiel.de

Further Information:
Genomic Microbiology (AG Dagan)
Institute of General Microbiology, Kiel University
http://www.mikrobio.uni-kiel.de/de/ag-dagan

Cluster of Excellence “The Future Ocean”, Kiel University:
http://www.futureocean.org

Research Center “Kiel Evolution Center“, Kiel University:
http://www.kec.uni-kiel.de

Dr. Boris Pawlowski | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht 'Flamenco dancing' molecule could lead to better-protecting sunscreen
18.10.2019 | University of Warwick

nachricht Synthetic cells make long-distance calls
17.10.2019 | Rice University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Solving the mystery of quantum light in thin layers

A very special kind of light is emitted by tungsten diselenide layers. The reason for this has been unclear. Now an explanation has been found at TU Wien (Vienna)

It is an exotic phenomenon that nobody was able to explain for years: when energy is supplied to a thin layer of the material tungsten diselenide, it begins to...

Im Focus: An ultrafast glimpse of the photochemistry of the atmosphere

Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have explored the initial consequences of the interaction of light with molecules on the surface of nanoscopic aerosols.

The nanocosmos is constantly in motion. All natural processes are ultimately determined by the interplay between radiation and matter. Light strikes particles...

Im Focus: Shaping nanoparticles for improved quantum information technology

Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.

Researchers at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE's Argonne National...

Im Focus: Novel Material for Shipbuilding

A new research project at the TH Mittelhessen focusses on the development of a novel light weight design concept for leisure boats and yachts. Professor Stephan Marzi from the THM Institute of Mechanics and Materials collaborates with Krake Catamarane, which is a shipyard located in Apolda, Thuringia.

The project is set up in an international cooperation with Professor Anders Biel from Karlstad University in Sweden and the Swedish company Lamera from...

Im Focus: Controlling superconducting regions within an exotic metal

Superconductivity has fascinated scientists for many years since it offers the potential to revolutionize current technologies. Materials only become superconductors - meaning that electrons can travel in them with no resistance - at very low temperatures. These days, this unique zero resistance superconductivity is commonly found in a number of technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Future technologies, however, will harness the total synchrony of electronic behavior in superconductors - a property called the phase. There is currently a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Symposium on Functional Materials for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Metal-Air Batteries

02.10.2019 | Event News

NEXUS 2020: Relationships Between Architecture and Mathematics

02.10.2019 | Event News

Optical Technologies: International Symposium „Future Optics“ in Hannover

19.09.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Energy Flow in the Nano Range

18.10.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering

MR-compatible Ultrasound System for the Therapeutic Application of Ultrasound

18.10.2019 | Medical Engineering

Double layer of graphene helps to control spin currents

18.10.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>