Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Arginine restores T-cell ability to target cancer

23.11.2011
In many cases, tumors suppress a patient’s immune system in a way that keeps the cancer safe from immune system attack. This is particularly true for patients with glioblastoma, a primary brain tumor that carries a prognosis of only 12-15 months survival after diagnosis.

A study at the University of Colorado Cancer Center, recently published as a featured article in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, shows that treatment with the over-the-counter amino acid arginine may reactivate cancer-fighting T-cells in patients with glioblastoma, thus potentially allowing the immune system to help cleanse the body of cancer.

T-cells are the primary agent responsible for anti-tumor immune responses.

“If you take T-cells from patients with glioblastoma and stimulate them in the lab, they aren’t effective (in killing cancer cells),” says lead author Allen Waziri, MD, investigator at the CU Cancer Center, assistant professor of neurosurgery at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “But when we add back arginine, we restore T-cell function.”

In part, function is restored through the activity of neutrophils – an ancient and nonspecific type of white blood cell that kills invaders. After responding to inflammation, neutrophils stop the ongoing immune response. It’s as if once they arrive, they consider the infection treated and so suppress any response that exceeds what is needed – a response that if left unchecked would lead to the destruction of healthy tissues.

Neutrophils stop the immune response by secreting an enzyme called arginase. And after they secrete arginase, commonly they die and are excreted by the body. However, in many glioblastoma patients, these neutrophils persist and continue to produce immune-suppressing arginase.

“Persistence of activated neutrophils and increased arginase in the circulation of glioblastoma patients is a fascinating phenomenon, particularly considering that under normal conditions, neutrophils are expected to have an average lifespan of just several hours after activation,” he says.

Waziri’s group has hypothesized that persistent arginase production from neutrophils suppresses the immune system and keeps cancers from becoming immune targets.

“From one perspective, it appears that glioblastoma is taking advantage of a simple, evolutionarily-ancient method for controlling out-of-control immunity to avoid the specific anti-tumor immune response,” Waziri says.

However, there is a step between increased arginase and immune system suppression, and this is where Waziri and colleagues intervene – arginase, in fact, deletes the common amino acid arginine.

T-cells are critically dependent on arginine for activation and function. Therefore, it’s not the increase in arginase per se that is responsible for blunting T-cell activity, but rather the resulting lack of arginine that suppresses the immune systems of glioblastoma patients, Waziri’s group found.

Waziri and colleagues at the CU Cancer Center recently started a phase 0 clinical trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients to explore whether a week-long, high-dose course of arginine before cancer surgery can allow an immune system that previously missed cancer cells to recognize and attack them. Waziri and his team will look at the effect of arginine on patients’ immune systems as measured by T-cell function, immunological profile, and T-cell infiltration into resected tumor tissue.

“Our overall goal is to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for glioblastoma,” he says. “It’s likely that this will require a two-stage approach, including stimulation of the immune system with something like a tumor vaccine while simultaneously targeting the suppressive effects of tumors on the immune system.”

With positive results from this initial trial, Waziri hopes to further explore whether longer courses of arginine could help reduce the recurrence of glioblastoma and potentially offer a new strategy for patients with this otherwise incurable disease.

Waziri credits seed grants he has received from the AMC Cancer Fund (a fundraising arm of the CU Cancer Center), he Cancer League of Colorado, and an American Cancer Society Institutional Research Grant for contributing to the preclinical work that has led to this exciting clinical trial.

Garth Sundem | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucdenver.edu

Further reports about: Cancer T-cell amino acid cancer cells cell function immune response immune system

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>