Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A Hormone Ensures its Future

02.11.2011
Weizmann Institute scientists researching the structure of a vital brain region discover a new role for the hormone oxytocin.

Scientists reveal the structure of a brain area where hormones that regulate vital body processes pass into the blood

Much of the body’s chemistry is controlled by the brain – from blood pressure to appetite to food metabolism. In a study published recently in Developmental Cell, a team of scientists led by Dr. Gil Levkowitz of the Weizmann Institute has revealed the exact structure of one crucial brain area in which biochemical commands are passed from the brain cells to the bloodstream and from there to the body. In the process, they discovered a surprising new role for the ‘hormone of love,’ showing that it helps to direct the development of this brain structure.

The area in question, the neuro-hypophysis, is an interface between nerve fibers and blood vessels located at the base of the brain. Here, some of the major brain-body interactions take place: Hormones released from nerves into the blood vessels regulate a series of vital body processes, including the balance of fluids and uterine contractions in childbirth.

Although the neurohypophysis has been studied for more than a century, the scientists in the Weizmann Institute-led study developed new genetic tools that enabled them to examine the exact three-dimensional arrangement of this brain structure and clarify the cellular and molecular processes leading to its formation. Since the human neurohypophysis is exceedingly complex, the scientists performed the research on live embryos of zebrafish. These fully transparent embryos offer a unique model for studying the vertebrate brain, lending themselves to genetic manipulation with relative ease and enabling researchers to observe the actual formation of a neurohypophysis under a microscope.

The study revealed a surprising new function for the hormonal messenger oxytocin, dubbed the ‘hormone of love’ because, in addition to controlling appetite and such female reproductive behaviors as breastfeeding, it is also involved in mother-child and mate bonding. The scientists showed that oxytocin, one of the two major hormones secreted in the adult neurohypophysis, is involved in the development of this brain area already in the embryo. At this stage, the oxytocin governs the formation of new blood vessels. ‘The messenger helps to build the road for transmitting its own future messages,’ says Levkowitz. Developmental Cell highlighted the study’s findings in a preview headlined, ‘The Hormone of Love Attracts a Partner for Life.’

These findings provide an important advance in basic research because they shed light on fundamental brain processes, but in the future they might also be relevant to the treatment of disease. Since the neurohypophysis is one of only a few portions of the brain able to regenerate after injury, an understanding of how it is formed may one day help achieve such regeneration in other parts of the central nervous system.

The research was conducted in Levkowitz’s lab in the Molecular Cell Biology Department by Ph.D. student Amos Gutnick together with Dr. Janna Blechman. The Weizmann scientists worked in collaboration with Dr. Jan Kaslin of Monash University, Australia; Drs. Lukas Herwig, Heinz-Georg Belting and Markus Affolter of the University of Basel, Switzerland; and Dr. Joshua L. Bonkowsky of the University of Utah, United States.

Dr. Gil Levkowitz’s research is supported by the Dekker Foundation; the Kirk Center for Childhood Cancer and Immunological Disorders; and the Irwin Green Alzheimer’s Research Fund. Dr. Levkowitz is the incumbent of the Tauro Career Development Chair in Biomedical Research.

The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, is one of the world's top-ranking multidisciplinary research institutions. Noted for its wide-ranging exploration of the natural and exact sciences, the Institute is home to 2,700 scientists, students, technicians and supporting staff. Institute research efforts include the search for new ways of fighting disease and hunger, examining leading questions in mathematics and computer science, probing the physics of matter and the universe, creating novel materials and developing new strategies for protecting the environment.

Weizmann Institute news releases are posted on the World Wide Web at http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il, and are also available at http://www.eurekalert.org.

Yivsam Azgad | idw
Further information:
http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il/a-hormone-ensures-its-future
http://wis-wander.weizmann.ac.il

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Microscope measures muscle weakness
16.11.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

nachricht Good preparation is half the digestion
16.11.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Stoffwechselforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'

16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine

Good preparation is half the digestion

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Microscope measures muscle weakness

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>