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...Nucleic acid delivery

20.01.2010
Die Gentherapie umfasst eine Vielfalt biomedizinischer Anwendungen und liefert zahlreiche Methoden, um schwere Krankheiten wie z.B. Krebs zu behandeln. Sie beinhaltet das Einbringen von Genen mithilfe geeigneter Trägerstoffe in das Gewebe oder in die Zellen. Dabei werden defekte Genabschnitte durch einen gezielten Austausch der fehlerhaften DNA-Sequenz repariert. Durch die eingebrachten Gene wird eine therapeutische oder präventive Wirkung erzielt. Anders als bei konventionellen medikamentösen Therapien wird hier kein direkt wirkendes Arzneimittel verabreicht. Die Körperzellen sollen, die zur Heilung benötigten Proteine selbst produzieren bzw. die Produktion von unerwünschten Proteinen verhindern.

Alle bisher bekannten Methoden für eine erfolgreiche Gentherapie sind bis heute mehr oder weniger problematisch. Das entscheidende Problem ist hierbei die Entwicklung von Übertragungssystemen, so genannten Genfähren oder Vektoren. Die erfolgreiche und gefahrlose Einschleusung des genetischen Materials in die gentherapeutisch zu behandelnden Zellen stellt ganz besondere Anforderungen an die pharmazeutische Technik. Mit Hilfe von bioabbaubaren Polymeren versucht man neue viel versprechende Trägermaterialien für den Einsatz in der Gentherapie zu finden.

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