Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Trio of supermassive black holes shake space-time

25.06.2014

Astronomers have discovered three closely orbiting supermassive black holes in a galaxy more than 4 billion light years away. This is the tightest trio of black holes known to date. The discovery suggests that such closely packed supermassive black holes are far more common than previously thought.

An international research team, including Hans-Rainer Klöckner from MPIfR, performed VLBI observations at a number of frequencies to discover the inner two black holes of the system. In this project the Effelsberg 100m radio telescope took part in European VLBI network (EVN) observations covering two radio frequencies.


World map with radio telescopes of the EVN (European VLBI Network).

Image: EVN/JIVE.


Helical jets from one supermassive black hole caused by a very closely orbiting companion. The third black hole is farther away and emits relatively straight jets.

Image: Roger Deane (large image); NASA Goddard (inset bottom left; modified from original).

Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging and that should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some of those galaxies at a given time. The source under investigation was found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and has the catalog number SDSS J1502+1115. It is a quasar, the nucleus of an active galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.39, corresponding to a distance of more than four billion light years. A triple black hole system has been identified in that source, with two tight companions separated by less than 500 light years.

“What remains extraordinary to me is that these black holes, which are at the very extreme of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, are orbiting one another at 300 times the speed of sound on Earth”, says Roger Deane from University of Cape Town/South Africa, the lead author of the paper. “Not only that, but using the combined signals from radio telescopes on four continents we are able to observe this exotic system one third of the way across the Universe. It gives me great excitement as this is just scratching the surface of a long list of discoveries that will be made possible with the Square Kilometre Array.”

Such systems are important to understand for several reasons; in terms of galaxy evolution it is known that black holes influence how galaxies evolve, and understanding how often black holes themselves merge is key to this work. Furthermore, closely orbiting systems such as this are sources of gravitational waves in the Universe, if General Relativity is correct. Future radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be able to measure the gravitational waves from such systems as their orbits decrease.

At this point, very little is actually known about black hole systems that are so close to one another that they emit detectable gravitational waves. “This discovery not only suggests that close-pair black hole systems are much more common than previously expected, but also predicts that radio telescopes such as MeerKAT and African VLBI Network will directly assist in the detection and understanding of the gravitational wave signal”, says Matt Jarvis from the Universities of Oxford and the Western Cape. “Further in the future the SKA will allow us to find and study these systems in exquisite detail, and really allow us gain a much better understanding of how black holes shape galaxies over the history of the Universe.”

While the VLBI technique was essential to discover the inner two black holes (which are in fact the second closest pair of supermassive black holes known), Deane and co-authors have also shown that the binary black hole presence can be revealed by much larger scale features. The orbital motion of the black hole is imprinted onto its large jets, twisting them into a helical or corkscrew-like shape. So even though black holes may be so close together that our telescopes can’t tell them apart, their twisted jets may provide easy-to find pointers to them, much like using a flare to mark your location at sea. This may provide a way for sensitive future telescopes like MeerKAT and the SKA to find binary black holes with much greater efficiency.

“We have found the first needle in the “middle age” Universe and I hope that we will find much more and even closer systems of this kind in the near future”, concludes Hans-Rainer Klöckner from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, a co-author of the paper. “Such close-binaries will not only show us how supermassive black holes could grow or how they could alternate our space time, they will also help us to understand the inner workings and the interplay between jets and the accretion disc surrounding black holes.” This discovery is a prime example of how radio astronomy is done nowadays; it is an international and close collaboration accessing data products from various facilities distributed all over the globe.

The future will be bright with the SKA, the biggest radio telescope ever built, enabling such discoveries in international collaborations and hopefully Germany will find a way to support this endeavor also in future and enable its scientists and engineers to participate in the SKA project.

Original Paper:

A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black-hole system, by R. P. Deane, Z. Paragi, M. J. Jarvis, M. Coriat, G. Bernardi, R. P. Fender, S. Frey, I. Heywood, H.-R. Klöckner, K. Grainge & C. Rumsey, Nature Online, June 25, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13454 (after the embargo expires).

Local Contact:

Dr. Hans-Rainer Klöckner
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn.
Fon: +49 228-525-31
E-Mail: hkloeckner@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

Dr. Norbert Junkes,
Press and Public Outreach,
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie.
Fon: +49(0)228-525-399
E-mail: njunkes@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

International Contact:

Dr. Roger Deane
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Fon: +27 78 582-2308
E-Mail: roger.deane@ast.uct.ac.za

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/pressreleases/2014/7

Norbert Junkes | Max-Planck-Institut

Further reports about: Max-Planck-Institut Radioastronomie SDSS SKA Universe VLBI observations telescopes waves

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Climate cycles may explain how running water carved Mars' surface features
02.12.2016 | Penn State

nachricht What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?
02.12.2016 | University of Toronto

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>