Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Trio of supermassive black holes shake space-time

25.06.2014

Astronomers have discovered three closely orbiting supermassive black holes in a galaxy more than 4 billion light years away. This is the tightest trio of black holes known to date. The discovery suggests that such closely packed supermassive black holes are far more common than previously thought.

An international research team, including Hans-Rainer Klöckner from MPIfR, performed VLBI observations at a number of frequencies to discover the inner two black holes of the system. In this project the Effelsberg 100m radio telescope took part in European VLBI network (EVN) observations covering two radio frequencies.


World map with radio telescopes of the EVN (European VLBI Network).

Image: EVN/JIVE.


Helical jets from one supermassive black hole caused by a very closely orbiting companion. The third black hole is farther away and emits relatively straight jets.

Image: Roger Deane (large image); NASA Goddard (inset bottom left; modified from original).

Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging and that should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some of those galaxies at a given time. The source under investigation was found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and has the catalog number SDSS J1502+1115. It is a quasar, the nucleus of an active galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.39, corresponding to a distance of more than four billion light years. A triple black hole system has been identified in that source, with two tight companions separated by less than 500 light years.

“What remains extraordinary to me is that these black holes, which are at the very extreme of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, are orbiting one another at 300 times the speed of sound on Earth”, says Roger Deane from University of Cape Town/South Africa, the lead author of the paper. “Not only that, but using the combined signals from radio telescopes on four continents we are able to observe this exotic system one third of the way across the Universe. It gives me great excitement as this is just scratching the surface of a long list of discoveries that will be made possible with the Square Kilometre Array.”

Such systems are important to understand for several reasons; in terms of galaxy evolution it is known that black holes influence how galaxies evolve, and understanding how often black holes themselves merge is key to this work. Furthermore, closely orbiting systems such as this are sources of gravitational waves in the Universe, if General Relativity is correct. Future radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be able to measure the gravitational waves from such systems as their orbits decrease.

At this point, very little is actually known about black hole systems that are so close to one another that they emit detectable gravitational waves. “This discovery not only suggests that close-pair black hole systems are much more common than previously expected, but also predicts that radio telescopes such as MeerKAT and African VLBI Network will directly assist in the detection and understanding of the gravitational wave signal”, says Matt Jarvis from the Universities of Oxford and the Western Cape. “Further in the future the SKA will allow us to find and study these systems in exquisite detail, and really allow us gain a much better understanding of how black holes shape galaxies over the history of the Universe.”

While the VLBI technique was essential to discover the inner two black holes (which are in fact the second closest pair of supermassive black holes known), Deane and co-authors have also shown that the binary black hole presence can be revealed by much larger scale features. The orbital motion of the black hole is imprinted onto its large jets, twisting them into a helical or corkscrew-like shape. So even though black holes may be so close together that our telescopes can’t tell them apart, their twisted jets may provide easy-to find pointers to them, much like using a flare to mark your location at sea. This may provide a way for sensitive future telescopes like MeerKAT and the SKA to find binary black holes with much greater efficiency.

“We have found the first needle in the “middle age” Universe and I hope that we will find much more and even closer systems of this kind in the near future”, concludes Hans-Rainer Klöckner from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, a co-author of the paper. “Such close-binaries will not only show us how supermassive black holes could grow or how they could alternate our space time, they will also help us to understand the inner workings and the interplay between jets and the accretion disc surrounding black holes.” This discovery is a prime example of how radio astronomy is done nowadays; it is an international and close collaboration accessing data products from various facilities distributed all over the globe.

The future will be bright with the SKA, the biggest radio telescope ever built, enabling such discoveries in international collaborations and hopefully Germany will find a way to support this endeavor also in future and enable its scientists and engineers to participate in the SKA project.

Original Paper:

A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black-hole system, by R. P. Deane, Z. Paragi, M. J. Jarvis, M. Coriat, G. Bernardi, R. P. Fender, S. Frey, I. Heywood, H.-R. Klöckner, K. Grainge & C. Rumsey, Nature Online, June 25, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13454 (after the embargo expires).

Local Contact:

Dr. Hans-Rainer Klöckner
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn.
Fon: +49 228-525-31
E-Mail: hkloeckner@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

Dr. Norbert Junkes,
Press and Public Outreach,
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie.
Fon: +49(0)228-525-399
E-mail: njunkes@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

International Contact:

Dr. Roger Deane
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Fon: +27 78 582-2308
E-Mail: roger.deane@ast.uct.ac.za

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/pressreleases/2014/7

Norbert Junkes | Max-Planck-Institut

Further reports about: Max-Planck-Institut Radioastronomie SDSS SKA Universe VLBI observations telescopes waves

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht New NASA study improves search for habitable worlds
20.10.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
19.10.2017 | California Institute of Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>