Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Stellar Astronomers Answer Question Posed by Citizen Scientists: ‘What Are Yellowballs?’

29.01.2015

Some four years ago, a citizen scientist helping the Milky Way Project study Spitzer Space Telescope images for the tell-tale bubble patterns of star formation noticed something else.

“Any ideas what these bright yellow fuzzy objects are?” the volunteer wrote on a project message board.


Image courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Citizen scientists working with the Milky Way Project noticed and tagged the "yellowballs" in the middle of this image from the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Well, that sparked some discussion among the professional astronomers on the Milky Way Project and eventually led to a study of the compact objects now known as “yellowballs.” A paper just published by The Astrophysical Journal (“The Milky Way Project: What are Yellowballs?”) answers some questions about the 900 yellowballs tagged by citizen scientists.

Charles Kerton, an Iowa State University associate professor of physics and astronomy and a member of the Milky Way Project science team, is first author of the paper. Co-authors are Grace Wolf-Chase of the Adler Planetarium in Chicago and the University of Chicago; Kim Arvidsson, formerly an Iowa State doctoral student and now of Schreiner University in Kerrville, Texas; and Chris Lintott and Robert Simpson of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.

“In this paper, through a combination of catalog cross-matching and infrared color analysis, we show that yellowballs are a mix of compact star-forming regions,” the astronomers wrote.

And, they wrote, the project demonstrates “the serendipitous nature of citizen science efforts” because Milky Way Project volunteers “went beyond their assigned tasks and started tagging and discussing” the yellowballs.

The Milky Way Project is part of the Zooniverse, a collection of Internet-based science projects that ask for the public’s help looking through images and other data.

The Milky Way Project asks people to study tens of thousands of Spitzer’s infrared images. People are asked to circle and classify various objects, including bubbles of gas and dust blown by the radiation and charged particles from bright young stars.

To date, citizen scientists have made nearly 1.5 million classifications for the project.

Kerton said all of that classifying is helping astronomers study and map star formation within the galaxy.

But the project took a little detour when citizen scientists noticed yellow objects along the rims of some bubble formations. (It should be noted the yellowballs found in Spitzer’s infrared images aren’t really yellow. When the images are made, various colors are assigned to represent different wavelengths of infrared light. The yellow color on the images highlights where infrared emission from molecules (colored green) and from hot dust (colored red) completely overlap.)

The astronomers began studying those yellowballs by cross-matching them against existing catalogs of space objects. They also studied the luminosity and physical sizes of 138 of the yellowballs.

Kerton said the researchers found most of the yellowballs were located in regions of the galaxy containing dense gas. They also found that yellowball luminosity was consistent with the luminosity expected for a collection of newly formed massive stars.

They’ve concluded there’s an early “yellowball stage” in the formation of stars 10 to 40 times as massive as our sun. The yellowballs are considered very young versions of the bubble formations.

“All massive stars probably go through this yellowball stage,” Kerton said. “The most massive stars go through this stage very early and quickly. Less massive stars go through this stage more slowly.”

The astronomers also wrote that further studies of yellowballs will improve our understanding of how regions of massive star formation grow from early compact stages to more evolved and bubble-like structures.

But those findings aren’t the only highlight of this particular study, Kerton said.

“The fun thing about this study is the involvement of the citizen scientists,” he said. “This is a nice example of people looking at something in the universe and saying, ‘That’s different,’ and then passing it on to professional astronomers.”

Contact Information
Charles Kerton, Physics and Astronomy, 515-294-2298, kerton@iastate.edu

Charles Kerton | newswise
Further information:
http://www.iastate.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht NASA's SDO sees partial eclipse in space
29.05.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier
29.05.2017 | University of Strathclyde

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.

The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New insights into the ancestors of all complex life

29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences

New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources

29.05.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA's SDO sees partial eclipse in space

29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>