Lalit Dandona and colleagues from the Administrative Staff College of India collaborated with colleagues from the Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad, India, to estimate the number of HIV-positive individuals in the district of Guntur. Dandona et al. collected blood samples from 12,617 individuals who were representative of the population of Guntur. The tested individuals were men and women, 15-49 years of age, from both urban and rural areas, and from all socio-economic groups, living in the district.
Dandona et al. also estimated the number of HIV positive high-risk individuals such as sex workers and prisoners, which might have been under-represented in the sample. They extrapolated their results to the whole 15-49 year old population of Guntur and compared their results with the estimation of HIV burden for the district obtained using the official method based on sentinel surveillance in large public-sector hospitals.
Dandona et al.’s results show that the HIV prevalence for 15-49 year old adults in Guntur district, adjusted for age, sex and rural-urban distribution of the population in the district is 1.72%, which increased slightly to 1.79% after adjusting for high-risk groups. This led to an estimate of 45,900 individuals with HIV in Guntur district, which is 2.5 times lower than the 112,600 estimate obtained with the official method.
The authors explain that the official sentinel surveillance-based method uses data from public antenatal clinics and sexually transmitted infection clinics, as well as some high-risk groups. Public hospitals included in the sentinel surveillance have disproportionately high rates of HIV due to referral of patients with HIV by private practitioners and because they are used disproportionately more by patients with a lower socioeconomic status, who in this study had a higher prevalence of HIV. Therefore, the current official method is leading to substantial over-estimations of the burden of HIV in India.
Juliette Savin | alfa
NIH scientists describe potential antibody treatment for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae
14.03.2018 | NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Researchers identify key step in viral replication
13.03.2018 | University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...
On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...
The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...
At the 2018 ILA Berlin Air Show from April 25–29, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is showcasing extreme high-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA): A video documents how for metal components that are highly loaded, EHLA has already proved itself as an alternative to hard chrome plating, which is now allowed only under special conditions.
When the EU restricted the use of hexavalent chromium compounds to special applications requiring authorization, the move prompted a rethink in the surface...
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
13.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
19.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.03.2018 | Event News