Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Studies offer new treatment option to prevent kidney rejection

30.10.2002


A new study of the most commonly prescribed post-kidney transplant drug suggests it may not be the most effective weapon to fend off organ rejection and may even damage some donor kidneys. The research, to be presented Nov. 2 at the American Society of Nephrology annual meeting, identified another drug that seems to work better, a finding that could help expand the pool of donor organs.



An analysis by an Ohio University physiologist suggests that large doses of cyclosporine, the most often used anti-rejection drug, could cause a drop in the rate at which the kidney filters blood and decrease blood flow to the kidney. For patients who receive what’s known as a "marginal kidney," problems with cyclosporine may be particularly dangerous, the study found. A shortage of donor kidneys has prompted doctors to consider the use of organs from people who had high blood pressure or other health problems, as well as donor kidneys from non-heart beating donors. These marginal kidneys once were presumed to have higher failures rates, but research now suggests that the majority of them fare as well as any other transplanted organ. But such kidneys may be more prone to ischemia-reperfusion injury, tissue damage that occurs when blood flow to an organ is stopped, then started again after a period of time. The injury is common in all kidney transplants, but may be particularly severe in patients who receive marginal kidneys.

"More hospitals are starting to use marginal kidneys more often," said Sharon Inman, lead author of the study and assistant professor of biomedical sciences in the university’s College of Osteopathic Medicine. "We want to see if we can make those kidneys exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury work better so we can use them for transplant."


Inman is studying the effectiveness of rapamycin, a new immunosuppressant that controls the immune system differently than its more widely used counterpart and, according to Inman’s preliminary findings from a study in rats, may do so without harming the kidney.

"The kidneys treated with cyclosporine fared much worse that those treated with rapamycin," Inman said, adding that those organs suffered more restricted blood flow and poorer kidney filtration. This study followed the rats for five to seven days; the next step in the project is to follow them for a longer period of time. Inman also is interested in studies that suggest certain cholesterol-lowering drugs may improve renal function, and is launching another project to see if cholesterol medication can counteract the negative effect cyclosporine can have on the kidneys.

Last year, 14,152 people in the United States received a donor kidney, according to the United Network for Organ Sharing. But more than four times that number ended the year on the national organ transplant waiting list and another 2,861 died before a match could be found.

The use of marginal kidneys as a donor alternative may be more common today, but they still accounted for less than 2 percent of all organ transplants in 1999, the most recent year for which UNOS has data.

And the practice is not without controversy. Some of those kidneys come from non-heart beating donors – patients who, although they are not brain dead, could not survive without life-support equipment. Some claim this encourages the premature ending of the life of the donor. Others point to the two criteria used by many doctors for determining death: heart oriented and brain oriented. Scientists and physicians are now pushing for a uniform policy written by non-transplant specialists that would be instituted at all transplant centers.

"It’s crucial that the public is aware and understands the endpoint of death," Inman said. "This is important since ’marginal’ organs, such as those retrieved from non-heart beating donors, could expand the donor pool."

Inman’s studies are supported by a National Kidney Foundation Young Investigator Grant. The research was co-authored by Nancy Davis, a research technician, and Kristen Olson and Vicky Lukaszek, juniors in pre-med studies, all at Ohio University.

Kelli Whitlock | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ohio.edu/researchnews/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections
17.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego

nachricht Tiny magnetic implant offers new drug delivery method
14.02.2017 | University of British Columbia

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>