Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Studies offer new treatment option to prevent kidney rejection

30.10.2002


A new study of the most commonly prescribed post-kidney transplant drug suggests it may not be the most effective weapon to fend off organ rejection and may even damage some donor kidneys. The research, to be presented Nov. 2 at the American Society of Nephrology annual meeting, identified another drug that seems to work better, a finding that could help expand the pool of donor organs.



An analysis by an Ohio University physiologist suggests that large doses of cyclosporine, the most often used anti-rejection drug, could cause a drop in the rate at which the kidney filters blood and decrease blood flow to the kidney. For patients who receive what’s known as a "marginal kidney," problems with cyclosporine may be particularly dangerous, the study found. A shortage of donor kidneys has prompted doctors to consider the use of organs from people who had high blood pressure or other health problems, as well as donor kidneys from non-heart beating donors. These marginal kidneys once were presumed to have higher failures rates, but research now suggests that the majority of them fare as well as any other transplanted organ. But such kidneys may be more prone to ischemia-reperfusion injury, tissue damage that occurs when blood flow to an organ is stopped, then started again after a period of time. The injury is common in all kidney transplants, but may be particularly severe in patients who receive marginal kidneys.

"More hospitals are starting to use marginal kidneys more often," said Sharon Inman, lead author of the study and assistant professor of biomedical sciences in the university’s College of Osteopathic Medicine. "We want to see if we can make those kidneys exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury work better so we can use them for transplant."


Inman is studying the effectiveness of rapamycin, a new immunosuppressant that controls the immune system differently than its more widely used counterpart and, according to Inman’s preliminary findings from a study in rats, may do so without harming the kidney.

"The kidneys treated with cyclosporine fared much worse that those treated with rapamycin," Inman said, adding that those organs suffered more restricted blood flow and poorer kidney filtration. This study followed the rats for five to seven days; the next step in the project is to follow them for a longer period of time. Inman also is interested in studies that suggest certain cholesterol-lowering drugs may improve renal function, and is launching another project to see if cholesterol medication can counteract the negative effect cyclosporine can have on the kidneys.

Last year, 14,152 people in the United States received a donor kidney, according to the United Network for Organ Sharing. But more than four times that number ended the year on the national organ transplant waiting list and another 2,861 died before a match could be found.

The use of marginal kidneys as a donor alternative may be more common today, but they still accounted for less than 2 percent of all organ transplants in 1999, the most recent year for which UNOS has data.

And the practice is not without controversy. Some of those kidneys come from non-heart beating donors – patients who, although they are not brain dead, could not survive without life-support equipment. Some claim this encourages the premature ending of the life of the donor. Others point to the two criteria used by many doctors for determining death: heart oriented and brain oriented. Scientists and physicians are now pushing for a uniform policy written by non-transplant specialists that would be instituted at all transplant centers.

"It’s crucial that the public is aware and understands the endpoint of death," Inman said. "This is important since ’marginal’ organs, such as those retrieved from non-heart beating donors, could expand the donor pool."

Inman’s studies are supported by a National Kidney Foundation Young Investigator Grant. The research was co-authored by Nancy Davis, a research technician, and Kristen Olson and Vicky Lukaszek, juniors in pre-med studies, all at Ohio University.

Kelli Whitlock | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ohio.edu/researchnews/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cystic fibrosis alters the structure of mucus in airways
29.06.2017 | University of Iowa Health Care

nachricht Mice provide insight into genetics of autism spectrum disorders
28.06.2017 | University of California - Davis

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making Waves

Computer scientists use wave packet theory to develop realistic, detailed water wave simulations in real time. Their results will be presented at this year’s SIGGRAPH conference.

Think about the last time you were at a lake, river, or the ocean. Remember the ripples of the water, the waves crashing against the rocks, the wake following...

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nanostructures taste the rainbow

29.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New technique unveils 'matrix' inside tissues and tumors

29.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Cystic fibrosis alters the structure of mucus in airways

29.06.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>