Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Surprising pathway implicated in stuttering

23.11.2011
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have obtained new evidence that at least some persistent stuttering is caused by mutations in a gene governing not speech, but a metabolic pathway involved in recycling old cell parts.

Beyond a simple association, the study provides the first evidence that mutations affecting cellular recycling centers called lysosomes actually play a role in causing some people to stutter.

“This was extremely unexpected,” says senior author Stuart A. Kornfeld, MD, the David C. and Betty Farrell Professor of Medicine. “Why would impairment in a lysosomal pathway lead to stuttering? We don’t know the answer to that. Partly because we don’t know very much about the mechanisms of speech, including which neurons in the brain are involved. So we can’t fully explain stuttering, but now we have clues.”

The research is available online in the Journal of Biological Chemistry

Genetic clues to stuttering were first identified in a paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine in February 2010. In it, Dennis Drayna, PhD, a senior investigator with the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and a co-author on the current study, and his colleagues reported results of genetic studies on members of a large Pakistani family, many of whom stutter.

Among most of the stuttering family members, they found mutations in three genes involved in directing proteins to the lysosome. These same mutations were present in many unrelated individuals in Pakistan, North America and Europe who stutter, but not in those with normal speech.


Kornfeld
“They found mutations in three genes that encode a pathway for directing newly made lysosomal enzymes to the lysosomes,” Kornfeld says. “And it turned out to be a pathway we discovered years ago. So this is a nice collaboration.”

Until now, one of the three genes, NAGPA, had not been implicated in any human disorder. This is where Kornfeld and Wang-Sik Lee, PhD, research instructor in medicine at Washington University, began their in-depth biochemical investigation of the mutations that Drayna’s group identified.

NAGPA encodes an enzyme responsible for the last step in “addressing” proteins to the lysosome. Drayna’s work identified three separate mutations in NAGPA in individuals who stutter. And according to Lee’s biochemical analysis, all three of the mutations impaired the enzyme, but each did so in a different way. In general, mutations in a gene often cause the resulting protein to be folded into the wrong shape. Cells are very good at recognizing misfolded proteins and destroying them.

In this case, Lee’s biochemical analysis shows that two mutations appear to trap the proteins in the cell’s protein manufacturing center, though some get out before being destroyed.

“It’s not an all-or-nothing thing,” Kornfeld says. “Of the material that does get out, its activity is normal.”

But the third mutation causes a larger folding problem and the protein is destroyed just minutes after being made.

Such findings offer a glimpse at possible future therapies for stuttering. For two of the mutations at least, the problem is not that the protein can’t function, but rather that it can’t get out of the cell’s protein manufacturing center and go to the intracellular site where it acts to direct proteins to lysosomes. If some compound can be found that helps the protein escape, Lee’s work suggests that it would function normally. But Kornfeld cautions that this type of therapy for stuttering is a long way off.

“There are billions of neurons in the brain, and we have very little idea which neurons are involved in speech,” he says. “Our main finding is that these three mutations in NAGPA in people with persistent stuttering all have harmful effects. This is biochemical evidence that these mutations are meaningful, and not just markers of some other genetic change that is the real cause.”

Having described the three harmful mutations in NAGPA, Kornfeld’s group is now performing biochemical analyses on the other two mutated genes Drayna’s group identified: GNPTAB and GNPTG. Drayna and his colleagues estimate that these three mutated genes account for only about 10 percent of people who stutter with a family history. As such, they are continuing the search for additional genes responsible for stuttering.

Lee WS, Kang C, Drayna D, Kornfeld S. Analysis of mannose 6-phosphate uncovering enzyme mutations associated with persistent stuttering. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov. 18, 2011.

Kang C, Riazuddin S, Mundorff J, Krasnewich D, Friedman P, Mullikin JC, Drayna D. Mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway and persistent stuttering. The New England Journal of Medicine. February 2010.

This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, which is a part of the NIH.

Washington University School of Medicine’s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked fourth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Judy Martin | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

DGIST develops 20 times faster biosensor

24.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Nanoimprinted hyperlens array: Paving the way for practical super-resolution imaging

24.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Atomic-level motion may drive bacteria's ability to evade immune system defenses

24.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>