The findings are reported by a scientist from UC Santa Barbara and a research team from Harvard University in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B this week.
Columbine flowers, known as Aquilegia, evolved several lengths of petal spurs that match the tongue lengths of their pollinators, including bees, hummingbirds, and hawkmoths. The petal spurs are shaped like a tubular pocket and contain nectar at the tip. The spurs grow from 1 to 16 centimeters in length, depending on the species.The research team discovered that longer spurs result from the lengthening of cells in one direction, called anisotropy, and not from an increased number of cells. This finding contradicts decades of scientific thinking that assumed the elongated petals form via continued cell divisions.
He said that most studies of shape, particularly of leaves and of some flower parts, have focused their attention primarily on genes controlling cell division. "What this study is saying is that you don't want to just look at those kinds of characteristics; here's this whole other way to produce a tremendous amount of shape diversity without involving cell divisions," said Hodges.In long-spurred plants, the spurs reach the same length at the same point in time as the short-spurred flowers, but they keep on growing, said Hodges. The rest of the flower has to wait for the spurs to lengthen. Until then, the pollen can't be released and the ovules are not ready to be fertilized. The flower has to stop that part of development while the spurs grow. Then, almost a week later, those flowers become reproductive, after the spurs have grown longer.
In addition to Hodges, the co-authors are Joshua R. Puzey, Sharon J. Gerbode, Elena M. Kramer, and Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan, all from Harvard University.
Gail Gallessich | EurekAlert!
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At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
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Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
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Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
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