An estimated 41,000 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2004, according to the American Brain Tumor Association. To further narrow the gap between diagnosis and effective therapy, physicians at the University of Pennsylvania Health System now offer several promising approaches to brain tumor treatment, including novel imaging for oncologic neurosurgery and refined genetic testing for tumors to better target treatment.
Through enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), newer and broader information is helping to better guide tumor removal. MRI is used to measure the anatomy and metabolism of tumors. This informs surgeons pre- and post-operatively with a three-dimensional map of tumor-associated blood flow to more precisely assess the full extent of tumor growth versus conventional imaging methods. "This novel approach helps guide surgery and assessment of treatment response," says Donald M. O’Rourke, M.D., Associate Professor of Neurosurgery. These novel imaging methods are leading to increased patient survival by allowing for greater tumor removal in a safe manner.
Neuroscientists are also ushering in a new era in which genetics will dictate treatment. In the 1990s researchers noted that a more favorable prognosis in patients with certain brain tumors, primarily oligodendrogliomas, was associated with a deletion of genes on chromosomes 1 and 19. This genetic loss translates into a significant life-expectancy gain for some patients and is therefore a robust predictor that post-surgery chemotherapy should be given to such patients.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
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A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
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