Simulation is an important tool for computer-based development and pretesting of materials, helping eliminate expensive, dangerous mistakes. Computer-based testing is a specialized field of the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM in Kaiserslautern, not least because materials simulation is a complex process involving a great deal of mathematics.
This is especially true of multiscale materials modeling, the mathematical description of materials across multiple spatial and time scales. Graduate mathematician Jörg Willems has significantly improved our understanding of multiscale problems associated with flow dynamics and thermodynamics. His diploma thesis has greatly facilitated the use of numerical simulation in the development of filter media, insulating materials, composite materials and fuel cells. He has been awarded 2nd place in the Hugo Geiger Prize for his work.
When a stroke is diagnosed, every minute is of high value for limiting its impact. Existing treatment protocols only take effect after three to four hours. Physicians are therefore looking for effective alternatives such as stem cell therapy. Johannes Boltze of the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI in Leipzig is one of them. In his doctoral thesis he established a model for examining strokes in rats, and managed to show that treatment with stem cell containing populations shows promising results: “The ability of untreated animals to move after the infarct is severely impaired,” explains Johannes Boltze. “In behavioural tests, for instance, they have difficulty balancing well enough to run across a bar. Not so in the case of the animals we treated with cells.
They nimbly run across again after only a fortnight.” The stem cells promote endogenous healing and organizational processes in the brain. As a result, the surviving nerve cells are probably more resistant to the damage if the treatment is begun within 72 hours after stroke onset. Thus, cells from umbilical cord blood and bone marrow could be used for the stroke trials – an uncontroversial method that avoids any ethical concerns. The cell therapy procedure is ideal for further clinical usage in a stroke unit. Dr. Johannes Boltze received the 3rd place in the Hugo Geiger Prize for his research work.
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In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
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07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
07.12.2016 | Life Sciences
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine