Simulation is an important tool for computer-based development and pretesting of materials, helping eliminate expensive, dangerous mistakes. Computer-based testing is a specialized field of the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM in Kaiserslautern, not least because materials simulation is a complex process involving a great deal of mathematics.
This is especially true of multiscale materials modeling, the mathematical description of materials across multiple spatial and time scales. Graduate mathematician Jörg Willems has significantly improved our understanding of multiscale problems associated with flow dynamics and thermodynamics. His diploma thesis has greatly facilitated the use of numerical simulation in the development of filter media, insulating materials, composite materials and fuel cells. He has been awarded 2nd place in the Hugo Geiger Prize for his work.
When a stroke is diagnosed, every minute is of high value for limiting its impact. Existing treatment protocols only take effect after three to four hours. Physicians are therefore looking for effective alternatives such as stem cell therapy. Johannes Boltze of the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI in Leipzig is one of them. In his doctoral thesis he established a model for examining strokes in rats, and managed to show that treatment with stem cell containing populations shows promising results: “The ability of untreated animals to move after the infarct is severely impaired,” explains Johannes Boltze. “In behavioural tests, for instance, they have difficulty balancing well enough to run across a bar. Not so in the case of the animals we treated with cells.
They nimbly run across again after only a fortnight.” The stem cells promote endogenous healing and organizational processes in the brain. As a result, the surviving nerve cells are probably more resistant to the damage if the treatment is begun within 72 hours after stroke onset. Thus, cells from umbilical cord blood and bone marrow could be used for the stroke trials – an uncontroversial method that avoids any ethical concerns. The cell therapy procedure is ideal for further clinical usage in a stroke unit. Dr. Johannes Boltze received the 3rd place in the Hugo Geiger Prize for his research work.
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Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
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Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
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An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
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A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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