Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Opportunity to Usurp Reproductive Power of Royal Throne Keeps Worker Termites Home

07.10.2009
A new study by researchers at the University of Maryland suggests termite offspring stay in their birth colony to help their queen and king parents rather than leave to try and start their own family because their chance of inheriting the ‘reproductive throne’ is higher than their chance of successfully dispersing, finding a mate, and surviving to produce fertile offspring on their own.

In research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition (October 5, 2009), Professor Barbara L. Thorne and colleagues reveal how unrelated termites originating from two different families or colonies join forces after the death of their kings and queens, and then cooperate in a larger, stronger group in which new “reproductives” can emerge from the worker ranks of either or both original colonies, thus enabling both lineages to thrive.

"When young dampwood termite colonies nest in the same piece of wood, their interactions result in assassination and cannibalism of one or both sets of queens and kings followed by fusion of the two families into a single colony,” said Thorne.

These findings help unravel an evolutionary mystery that Charles Darwin himself recognized as a special problem to reconcile with fundamental concepts of natural selection. The majority of individuals in a termite (or ant, bee, or wasp) colony are “workers” who stay to help out in their parents’ colony their entire lives, but never reproduce. Why would natural selection (“survival of the fittest”) favor traits that reduce reproductive success? This research shows that unrelated families both benefit following colony encounters and that competition among families living within limited food and nesting resources played a prominent role in the evolution of the complex social structure in termites.

For this study, Thorne and her colleagues Philip Johns and Ken Howard, now at Bard College, and Nancy Breisch and Anahi Rivera at the University of Maryland, staged meetings between unrelated dampwood termite colonies (from the Termopsidae family) that mimicked natural meetings that occur under wood bark, and analyzed genetic markers.

These termites are members of the genus Zootermopsis, and share social, developmental, and habitat characteristics with ancient ancestors. They thus serve as a model system to draw inferences regarding how highly social behavior evolved in these insects 140 million years ago.

Termite colonies begin as a nuclear family: the queen, the king, and their offspring (workers and soldiers). Although most termite workers never reproduce, if either or both of the original parents die, one or more of their offspring can become a ‘replacement reproductive’ to carry on (usually incestuous) reproduction and growth of the colony. When young dampwood termite colonies nest in the same piece of wood, the neighbors meet and the two families merge into a single colony after a violent process during which one or both sets of queens and kings may be killed and eaten.

After the carnage, worker offspring may usurp the throne and the reproductive power and resources that go with it. Despite the original colonies being unrelated, individuals within the merged colony cooperate. This cooperation is best explained by the key finding of this paper, revealed through analysis of genetic markers: offspring in both original colonies have opportunities to develop into new (replacement) reproductives within the larger, merged colony, and termites from the two families may even interbreed. Thus both lineages (i.e. both original, unrelated families or young colonies) can ‘win’ and propagate in this dynamic.

Data in this PNAS paper add genetic evidence to support a theory that Thorne and her lab first proposed in a 2003 PNAS paper– the theory of “Accelerated Inheritance” to explain the evolution of highly social behavior and nonreproductive castes in termites.

The paper “Nonrelatives inherit colony resources in a primitive termite” was written by Philip M. Johns, Kenneth J. Howard, Nancy L. Breisch, Anahi Rivera, and Barbara L. Thorne. This research was supported by a National Science Foundation grant to Barbara L. Thorne, Department of Entomology, College of Chemical & Life Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.

Kelly Blake | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.umd.edu
http://www.terp.umd.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>