Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Light and Air

19.11.2012
Sunlight-driven CO2 fixation

The increased use of renewable energy sources, particularly sunlight, is highly desirable, as is industrial production that is as CO2-neutral as possible. Both of these wishes could be fulfilled if CO2 could be used as the raw material in a system driven by solar energy.



Japanese researchers have now introduced an approach to this type of process in the journal Angewandte Chemie. Their method is based on a principle similar to natural photosynthesis.

The use of carbon dioxide as a source of carbon may be an attractive option for reducing the consumption of fossil feedstocks and improving the CO2 footprint of chemical products. The biggest obstacle in our way is the high stability of the CO2 molecule. One of the possibilities for jumping this hurdle is to use very high-energy molecules to react with CO2.

The photosynthetic process in green plants provides an example of how this could work. This process takes place in two steps: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In the light reactions, the photosynthetic system captures photons and stores their energy in the form of energetic chemical compounds. These are subsequently used to drive the dark reactions that use CO2 as a carbon source to synthesize complex sugar molecules.

Researchers working with Masahiro Murakami at Kyoto University used the same principle to design their process. In this case, the first step is also a reaction driven by light. The action of UV light can convert the starting material, an á-methylamino ketone, to a very energetic molecule.

This also works with sunlight, as the researchers found out. An intramolecular rearrangement with ring closure results in a molecule containing a ring made of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. This type of ring is under a great deal of strain and is correspondingly reactive. This “light reaction” was coupled to a “dark reaction”: In the subsequent light-independent step, the highly energetic compound captures CO2 in the presence of a base. This forms a cyclic amino-substituted carbonic acid diester that could be useful as an intermediate for chemical syntheses.

The striking thing about this reaction scheme is that the technique is simple. Diffuse sunlight on cloudy days is enough to drive the process. The second step can be carried out in the same reaction vessel through simple addition of the base and heating to 60 °C. The yield is 83 %. In addition, the process is very adaptable because a wide variety of á-methylamino ketones can be used as starting materials.

About the Author
Dr Masahiro Murakami is a Professor of Kyoto University. He has been working in the area of organic chemistry and organometallic chemistry, especially the development of new reactions directed towards organic synthesis. He is the recipient of the Nagoya Silver Medal.
Author: Masahiro Murakami, Kyoto University (Japan), http://www.sbchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp/murakami-lab/contact/contact.html
Title: Solar-Driven Incorporation of Carbon Dioxide into á-Amino Ketones
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, No. 47, 11750–11752, Permalink to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201206166

Masahiro Murakami | Wiley-VCH
Further information:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201206166
http://pressroom.angewandte.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Two Group A Streptococcus genes linked to 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections
25.09.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity
22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fraunhofer ISE Pushes World Record for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells to 22.3 Percent

25.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Usher syndrome: Gene therapy restores hearing and balance

25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

An international team of physicists a coherent amplification effect in laser excited dielectrics

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>