While cellular senescence has been thought of as a natural mechanism to combat uncontrolled cell growth, or cancer, recent studies have shown that some cell types express a secretome during senescence that alters the tumor microenvironment and affects the cell's response to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Ohanna et al. confirm that senescent melanoma cells do, in fact, express an inflammatory secretome, and have delineated the genetic pathways involved: Depletion of the MITF transcription factor, or exposure to anti-melanoma drugs, activates the DNA damage response and triggers senescence. Senescent melanoma cells express a PARP-1 and NF-kB—associated secretome, which contains high levels of the chemokine CCL2. CCL2, in turn, leads to a loss of E-cadherin expression and an invasive phenotype.
In fact, Ohanna et al. show that culturing melanoma cells with exogenous CCL2 enhances their survival and invasiveness. This finding suggests that blocking CCL2, or its upstream effectors, may represent a novel therapeutic pathway. As Dr. Bertolotto explains, "Our data disclose a part of the mechanisms contributory to failure of anti-melanoma chemotherapies and we gain valuable insight for the identification of new candidates, namely PARP-1, NF-kB or CCL2, for therapeutic intervention in view to overcome drug resistance."
Heather Cosel | EurekAlert!
Making fuel out of thick air
08.12.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory
‘Spying’ on the hidden geometry of complex networks through machine intelligence
08.12.2017 | Technische Universität Dresden
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...
An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications
Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...
Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.
The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...
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11.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
11.12.2017 | Event News