Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Biologists Find ‘Missing Link’ in the Production of Protein Factories in Cells

23.06.2014

Biologists at UC San Diego have found the “missing link” in the chemical system that enables animal cells to produce ribosomes—the thousands of protein “factories” contained within each cell that manufacture all of the proteins needed to build tissue and sustain life.

Their discovery, detailed in the June 23 issue of the journal Genes & Development, will not only force a revision of basic textbooks on molecular biology, but also provide scientists with a better understanding of how to limit uncontrolled cell growth, such as cancer, that might be regulated by controlling the output of ribosomes.

Ribosomes are responsible for the production of the wide variety of proteins that include enzymes; structural molecules, such as hair, skin and bones; hormones like insulin; and components of our immune system such as antibodies.

Regarded as life’s most important molecular machine, ribosomes have been intensively studied by scientists (the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for example, was awarded for studies of its structure and function). But until now researchers had not uncovered all of the details of how the proteins that are used to construct ribosomes are themselves produced.

In multicellular animals such as humans, ribosomes are made up of about 80 different proteins (humans have 79 while some other animals have a slightly different number) as well as four different kinds of RNA molecules. In 1969, scientists discovered that the synthesis of the ribosomal RNAs is carried out by specialized systems using two key enzymes: RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III. But until now, scientists were unsure if a complementary system was also responsible for the production of the 80 proteins that make up the ribosome.

That’s essentially what the UC San Diego researchers headed by Jim Kadonaga, a professor of biology, set out to examine. What they found was the missing link—the specialized system that allows ribosomal proteins themselves to be synthesized by the cell.

“We found that ribosomal proteins are synthesized via a novel regulatory system with the enzyme RNA polymerase II and a factor termed TRF2,” Kadonaga says.  “For the production of most proteins, RNA polymerase II functions with a factor termed TBP, but for the synthesis of ribosomal proteins, it uses TRF2.”

“The discovery of this specialized TRF2-based system for ribosome biogenesis,” he adds, “provides a new avenue for the study of ribosomes and its control of cell growth, and should lead to a better understanding and potential treatment of diseases such as cancer.”

Other authors of the paper were UC San Diego biologists Yuan-Liang Wang, Sascha Duttke and George Kassavetis, and Kai Chen, Jeff Johnston, and Julia Zeitlinger of the Stowers Institute for Medical Research in Kansas City, Missouri. Their research was supported by two grants from the National Institutes of Health (1DP2OD004561-01 and R01 GM041249).

Kim McDonald | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: Cells Protein RNA TRF2 animals enzymes proteins ribosomal ribosome ribosomes synthesis

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Protein scaffold
27.05.2015 | Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University

nachricht Seeing the action
27.05.2015 | University of California - Santa Barbara

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Advance in regenerative medicine

The only professorship in Germany to date, one master's programme, one laboratory with worldwide unique equipment and the corresponding research results: The University of Würzburg is leading in the field of biofabrication.

Paul Dalton is presently the only professor of biofabrication in Germany. About a year ago, the Australian researcher relocated to the Würzburg department for...

Im Focus: Basel Physicists Develop Efficient Method of Signal Transmission from Nanocomponents

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.

Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...

Im Focus: IoT-based Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation System

Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services

To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...

Im Focus: First electrical car ferry in the world in operation in Norway now

  • Siemens delivers electric propulsion system and charging stations with lithium-ion batteries charged from hydro power
  • Ferry only uses 150 kilowatt hours (kWh) per route and reduces cost of fuel by 60 percent
  • Milestone on the road to operating emission-free ferries

The world's first electrical car and passenger ferry powered by batteries has entered service in Norway. The ferry only uses 150 kWh per route, which...

Im Focus: Into the ice – RV Polarstern opens the arctic season by setting course for Spitsbergen

On Tuesday, 19 May 2015 the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its home port in Bremerhaven, setting a course for the Arctic. Led by Dr Ilka Peeken from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) a team of 53 researchers from 11 countries will investigate the effects of climate change in the Arctic, from the surface ice floes down to the seafloor.

RV Polarstern will enter the sea-ice zone north of Spitsbergen. Covering two shallow regions on their way to deeper waters, the scientists on board will focus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International symposium: trends in spatial analysis and modelling for a more sustainable land use

20.05.2015 | Event News

15th conference of the International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists

18.05.2015 | Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing health in Europe. Balancing priorities, sharing responsibilities

12.05.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers develop intelligent handheld robots

27.05.2015 | Power and Electrical Engineering

"Hidden" fragrance compound can cause contact allergy

27.05.2015 | Health and Medicine

Supernovas help 'clean' galaxies

27.05.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>