Using a "systems biology" approach – which focuses on understanding the complex relationships between biological systems – to look under the hood of an aggressive form of breast cancer, researchers for the first time have identified a set of proteins in the blood that change in abundance long before the cancer is clinically detectable. The findings, by co-authors Christopher Kemp, Ph.D., and Samir Hanash, M.D., Ph.D., members of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's Human Biology and Public Health Sciences divisions, respectively, are published online ahead of the Aug. 1 print issue of Cancer Research.
Studying a mouse model of HER2-positive breast cancer (cancer that tests positive for a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) at various stages of tumor development and remission, the researchers found that even at the very earliest stages the incipient tumor cells communicate to normal tissues of the host by sending out signals and recruiting cells, while the host tissues in turn respond to and amplify the signals.
"It is really a 'systems biology' study of cancer, in that we simultaneously examined many genes and proteins over time – not just in the tumor but in blood and host tissues." Kemp said. "The overall surprising thing we found was the degree to which the host responds to cancer early in the course of disease progression, and the extent of that response. While a mouse – or presumably a human – with early-stage cancer may appear normal, our study shows that there are many changes occurring long before the disease can be detected clinically. This gives us hope that we should be able to identify those changes and use them as early detection tools with the ultimate goal of more effective intervention."
Traditionally, it has been thought that tumor cells shed telltale proteins into the blood or elicit an immune response that can lead to changes in blood-protein levels. "What is new here is that the predominant protein signals we see in blood originate from complex interactions and crosstalk between the tumor cells and the local host microenvironment," Kemp said.
Until now, such tumor/host interactions have been primarily studied one gene at a time locally, within the tumor; this is the first study to monitor the systemic response to cancer in a preclinical tumor model, tracking the abundance of cancer-related proteins throughout tumor induction, growth, and regression. Of approximately 500 proteins detected, up to a third changed in abundance; the number increased with cancer growth and decreased with tumor regression.
"We found a treasure trove of proteins that are involved in a variety of mechanisms related to cancer development, from the formation of blood vessels that feed tumors to signatures of early cancer spread, or metastasis," Kemp said.
Proteins associated with wound repair were most prevalent during the earliest stages of cancer growth, which could point to a potential target for early cancer detection. "Rather than blindly search for cancer biomarkers, an approach based on comprehensive understanding of the systems biology of the disease process is likely to increase the chances to identify blood-based biomarkers that will work in the clinic," Kemp said.
The next steps will involve selecting the most promising protein candidates found in mice and determining whether the same circulating proteins are markers of early breast cancer development in humans, with the ultimate goal of designing a blood test for earlier breast cancer detection.
The Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, the National Cancer Institute Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium and the Canary Foundation funded the research.
At Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, our interdisciplinary teams of world-renowned scientists and humanitarians work together to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer, HIV/AIDS and other diseases. Our researchers, including three Nobel laureates, bring a relentless pursuit and passion for health, knowledge and hope to their work and to the world. For more information, please visit fhcrc.org.
Kristen Woodward | EurekAlert!
Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München
Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences