Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Translocation risks revealed

27.04.2012
Scientists develop techniques to avoid repeat of red squirrel catastrophe

DISASTROUS disease outbreaks like the one which led to the decimation of the red squirrel in Britain can now be avoided through the implementation of new preventive measures developed by UK scientists.

Researchers at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) looked at the disease risks associated with moving wild animals (translocation), and worked out the key baseline data required to predict the outcome of wild animals being moved around.

Translocations are being increasingly used to conserve species whose numbers have plummeted as a result of habitat degradation and other human factors. Climate change is likely to lead to the need for many more translocations to ensure animals are located in favourable habitat.

There are numerous historical examples of translocations introducing disease to native populations. Following the accidental introduction of the rinderpest virus to Africa with translocated cattle in the 1890s the number of wildebeest in the Serengeti fell dramatically, leading to a subsequent fall in two important predator species - lion and hyena.

In the UK the introduction of the squirrelpox virus with the North American grey squirrel in the late 19th century caused fatal disease in red squirrels, contributing to their mass decline.

At the planning stages of the proposed translocation of Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) from Germany to the UK, called The Great Crane Project, the researchers used their new analytical method to assess the risk of disease.

The research team investigated the parasites harboured by the source population of cranes in Germany, captive cranes held in the UK, and the existing small population of cranes present in the UK. From those investigations they identified 24 potential translocation hazards. The threat of these disease hazards, which included nematode worms and avian influenza, was ranked.

By applying the kind of risk analysis already used to estimate risks to humans from sources as diverse as car accidents, radioactivity and cancer, the team investigated the probability and magnitude of effects from the 24 disease hazards at all stages of the translocation route including those triggered by stressors such as capture, those induced by parasites brought into the UK and those by parasites harboured by native species at the destination. This analysis has guided careful disease risk planning and implementation throughout the Great Crane Project and contributed to its current success.

Lead author Tony Sainsbury said: "This project has demonstrated that we have a feasible method to assess the risks of disease to translocations before they take place, which is very important if we are to avoid a catastrophe like that which has virtually wiped out the red squirrel in the UK."

This new method of risk analysis is now used on all reintroduction programmes in Natural England's Species Recovery Programme. This approach is necessary whether the origin of the species are ex-situ populations destined for re-introductions, re-introduced populations or wild populations. This risk analysis process allows Natural England to adequately assess the impact of species recovery programmes on wild animal health and disease and to manage re-introduction programmes appropriately now and for any future re-introductions.

Tony Sainsbury said "The fundamental difficulties in analysing the risk of disease associated with translocation of wild animals are that knowledge of the number, identity and distribution of parasites and their ability to induce disease is limited and requires further research. In the meantime post-release health monitoring remains very important.

Their research is published online today (26.4.12) in the journal Conservation Biology.

Notes to editors:

Analyzing disease risks associated with translocations is published online today in Conservation Biology.

Translocations which cross ecological (e.g.habitat) and geographic (e.g. mountain ranges, seas) boundaries are most risky because the translocated wild animals are more likely to make contact with non-native parasites to which they are immunologically naive, and therefore the authors defined parasites as hazards where they were novel to the host.

Eurasian cranes - also known as common cranes - had all but died out in Britain due to hunting, egg collection and changes in land use, with only one small population in East Anglia remaining. Conservation organisations planned a reintroduction of birds from Germany to the Somerset Levels to establish a self-sustaining wild population as part of the Great Crane Project. In 2008 ZSL were asked to perform the disease risk analysis. The disease risk analysis was very important in ensuring the success of the project to date and ensuring disease risks were minimised.

'Parasite' is used as an all encompassing term to cover infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites.

The study was funded by ZSL, Natural England and RSPB, with assistance from the WWT.

The Great Crane Project is a partnership between the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, RSPB and Pensthorpe Conservation Trust, with major funding from Viridor Credits Environmental Company. Our aim is to restore healthy populations of wild cranes throughout the UK, so that people can once again experience these beautiful birds.

Founded in 1826, the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is an international scientific, conservation and educational charity: the key role is the conservation of animals and their habitats. The Society runs ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, carries out scientific research in the Institute of Zoology and is actively involved in field conservation in other countries worldwide. For further information please visit www.zsl.org

Since its founding in 1889, the RSPB has grown into a wildlife conservation charity with more than a million members. Its work is driven by a passionate belief that we all have a responsibility to protect birds and the environment. Bird populations reflect the health of the planet on which our future depends.

WWT is a leading UK conservation organisation saving wetlands for wildlife and people across the world. With over 60 years experience of wetland conservation, WWT is committed to the protection of wetlands and all that depend on them for survival.

WWT operates nine wetland visitor centres in the UK and manages over 2,000 hectares, including seven Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), one Area of Special Scientific Interest (ASSI), six Special Protection Areas (SPA), Part of one Marine Nature Reserve and six Ramsar sites, supporting over 200,000 waterbirds. WWT aviculturalists' extensive hand-rearing expertise is a vital part of the Great Crane Project.

Contact the WWT press office (01453 891144/ 07823 530 756) for a behind-the-scenes look at how the risk analysis is being implemented at 'crane school' in Slimbridge, where the 2012 chicks are currently hatching.

Emma Edwards/Smita Chandra | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.zsl.org

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling 'fast fashion' to reduce waste and pollution
03.04.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>