Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

It whistles; change in pitch tells all in this new sonic gas analyzer

20.10.2005


Components of the new Penn State sonic gas analyzer. The sample chamber (bottle) is connected to the analyzer cell (resonator) by a sealed fan (pump) that circulates the gas mixture through the system.


Penn State researchers have developed a prototype sonic gas analyzer that automatically and continuously tracks the concentration of a gas in an air/gas mixture based on changes in pitch.

Miguel Horta, doctoral candidate in acoustics who is currently working on the sonic gas analyzer as part of his dissertation, says, "The system automatically cancels out the background and flow noise and can detect changes in gas concentration as low as 0.003 percent – plenty sensitive enough, for example, to let you know if you’ve got an explosive mixture."

The Penn State researchers are developing the current prototype to track continuously the concentrations of hydrogen produced by bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFC). In MFCs, bacteria feed on the organic matter in wastewater and produce hydrogen for use as fuel while simultaneously cleaning the water.



However, the researchers say their new system also could be adapted for tracking toxic or flammable gases in mines, sewers or landfills, for hydrogen detectors in battery compartments of boats and electric cars or in industries where gases are consumed as feedstocks.

Horta will detail the system and his measurements on helium, sulfur hexafluoride and hydrogen produced by non-bacterial sources in a talk set for Oct. 19 at the Acoustical Society of America/Society of Noise Control Engineers (ASA/Noise-Con 2005) in Minneapolis, Minn. His presentation is titled Sonic Gas Analyzer for Microbiological Metabolic Measurements. His co-author is his thesis adviser, Dr. Steven Garrett, the United Technologies Corp. professor of acoustics.

Garrett explains that, in the Penn State sonic gas analyzer, a miniature speaker produces a tone barely audible outside the resonator that sounds like a whistle. Two tiny microphones capture the tone, called a resonance frequency, and the two-microphone outputs are then subtracted to double the signal of interest and cancel any extraneous noise before being fed to an electronic tracking system, called a phase-locked loop. This tracking system determines the changes in the resonance frequency caused by the changes in gas concentration, while simultaneously correcting for any changes in the gas temperature.

Horta adds, "If the concentration of a gas in the gas/air mixture passing through the system changes, the new concentration will affect the sound’s speed which will, in turn, change the resonance frequency. That change in resonance frequency or pitch, as detected by the microphones and tracking system, tells us what the change in gas concentration is at every instant without disturbing the system or requiring extraction of gas samples."

Sonic gas analyzers can be used in the same applications as thermal conductivity analyzers, the researchers point out. However, since the sonic gas analyzer only introduces sound, it doesn’t change the temperature of the gas mixture, as do thermal conductivity analyzers.

Garrett notes, "Keeping the temperature unaltered by external devices is crucial to obtaining detailed information about the gas mixture in a microbial fuel cell without affecting the bacteria."

Horta’s measurements on helium, sulfur hexafluoride, and hydrogen show an immediate response by the analyzer to the introduction of a contaminating gas. The necessary time for the gases to become thoroughly mixed within the system varies from approximately 30 seconds for lighter gases like helium and hydrogen to about one minute for the heavier sulfur hexafluoride. Once the gases are mixed, the resonance frequency is stable to about 0.02 Hz, corresponding to a concentration resolution on the order of 30 parts-per-million.

The absolute accuracy of the change in frequency has an uncertainty of about 0.13 Hz for sulfur hexafluoride and 0.6 Hz for helium, corresponding to absolute accuracies in concentration of 0.015 percent and 0.02 percent respectively. In the case of hydrogen, the uncertainty of a concentration measurement is 0.118 percent.

Garrett explains, "An uncertainty of 0.1 percent means that, if we measure a concentration of, say, two percent of helium in air, our statistical error analysis tells us that the value is, for sure, between 1.9 percent and 2.1 percent."

The researchers are working on modifications in the design of the analyzer to further improve the accuracy of the measurements.

The research project is supported by the endowment for the United Technologies Corporation Professorship that Garrett holds.

Barbara Hale | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.psu.edu

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht Silicon solar cell of ISFH yields 25% efficiency with passivating POLO contacts
08.12.2016 | Institut für Solarenergieforschung GmbH

nachricht Robot on demand: Mobile machining of aircraft components with high precision
06.12.2016 | Fraunhofer IFAM

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>