The curious thing is the rise in minimum temperatures. Tablelands are the most representative area from a climatic point of view; if we take them as a reference, according to Staudt´s systematized data, Spanish minimum temperatures have risen about a degree from the first thirty years of the XX century to the last three decades.
The rise in maximum temperatures is lower and more irregular than that of the minimums, which have risen in all the regions of the national climate map, especially in the Valleys of the River Ebro and Guadalquivir, a degree and a half. Minimums of cities like Sevilla have risen 2 centigrade degrees in the last years. If we correct the so-called urban effect, typical of big and medium cities, the rise is of 1.6 degrees. In the Mediterranean and Cantabrian coast, warming is lower.
According to experts´ data, the average temperature of the planet raised considerably in the last century. Specifically, from 1880 to 2000, an average of 0.7 centigrade degrees. “The trend found in the Iberian Peninsula agrees with the global one (at a planetary level) and can be observed above all in the last thirty years”, points out María Jesús Esteban Parra, director of the thesis together with Yolanda Castro Díez. To come to this conclusion, the scientists of the research group Atmosphere Physics of the UGR (Universidad de Granada [http://www.ugr.es]) have systematized the quality of the data of the Natioanl Institute of Meteorology, since the 1970s.
After an introduction to the climatic variability of the Peninsula, forty-five Spanish original time series have been catalogued monthly averaged. It is not an easy job. “Sometimes, weather stations which take temperatures move or measures get affected by different non-meteorological factors, like urbanization. If these changes are not taken into account and corrected, data can not be compared to the previous ones”, explains doctor Staudt.
Therefore, “this work is essential because if we do not homogenize the data, we can not come to any conclusion about climate change”, concludes Professor Castro. To go deeply into climatology, they do research into variables like sunny hours, cloudiness and their connection with temperatures. The typical global difference in the behaviour of maximum and minimum temperatures has disappeared since 1970. Thus, in the last thirty years, both groups clearly rise whereas cloudiness decreases, which may mean an increase of the subtropical nature of the peninsular climate.
In times of climate change: What a lake’s colour can tell about its condition
21.09.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)
Did marine sponges trigger the ‘Cambrian explosion’ through ‘ecosystem engineering’?
21.09.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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