The curious thing is the rise in minimum temperatures. Tablelands are the most representative area from a climatic point of view; if we take them as a reference, according to Staudt´s systematized data, Spanish minimum temperatures have risen about a degree from the first thirty years of the XX century to the last three decades.
The rise in maximum temperatures is lower and more irregular than that of the minimums, which have risen in all the regions of the national climate map, especially in the Valleys of the River Ebro and Guadalquivir, a degree and a half. Minimums of cities like Sevilla have risen 2 centigrade degrees in the last years. If we correct the so-called urban effect, typical of big and medium cities, the rise is of 1.6 degrees. In the Mediterranean and Cantabrian coast, warming is lower.
According to experts´ data, the average temperature of the planet raised considerably in the last century. Specifically, from 1880 to 2000, an average of 0.7 centigrade degrees. “The trend found in the Iberian Peninsula agrees with the global one (at a planetary level) and can be observed above all in the last thirty years”, points out María Jesús Esteban Parra, director of the thesis together with Yolanda Castro Díez. To come to this conclusion, the scientists of the research group Atmosphere Physics of the UGR (Universidad de Granada [http://www.ugr.es]) have systematized the quality of the data of the Natioanl Institute of Meteorology, since the 1970s.
After an introduction to the climatic variability of the Peninsula, forty-five Spanish original time series have been catalogued monthly averaged. It is not an easy job. “Sometimes, weather stations which take temperatures move or measures get affected by different non-meteorological factors, like urbanization. If these changes are not taken into account and corrected, data can not be compared to the previous ones”, explains doctor Staudt.
Therefore, “this work is essential because if we do not homogenize the data, we can not come to any conclusion about climate change”, concludes Professor Castro. To go deeply into climatology, they do research into variables like sunny hours, cloudiness and their connection with temperatures. The typical global difference in the behaviour of maximum and minimum temperatures has disappeared since 1970. Thus, in the last thirty years, both groups clearly rise whereas cloudiness decreases, which may mean an increase of the subtropical nature of the peninsular climate.
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
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The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
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