The ability to observe the health of a field from images taken remotely by satellites or aircraft may have a positive economic and environmental impact on plant disease management, say plant pathologists with The American Phytopathological Society (APS).
According to Karl Steddom, associate research scientist at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Amarillo, Texas, "remote sensing" in plant disease management is the practice of gathering information about a crops health without physically scouting the field. Typically, this occurs through images captured from aircraft or satellites, but there are also ground-based applications. "The ability to view images of an entire field provides plant pathologists with greater precision and accuracy in disease assessment," he said. "By using remote imagery to differentiate between healthy and diseased plants, we are then able to determine how many acres are impacted by a particular disease," said Steddom.
Researchers first used remote sensing to differentiate between healthy and diseased crops in the late 1920s after U.S. Army pilots reported that cotton root rot spots were readily visible from the air at high altitudes. These spots were then photographed by hanging a camera over the side of the aircraft. The stark contrast between healthy cotton plants and the bare soil where the pathogen had killed the plants made the spots stand out in the photographs and the vertical angle allowed for comparative measures of healthy and diseased acreage.
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At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
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