Symbiotic fungi promote invasion into diverse plant communities
Populations of several European passerines that winter south of the Sahara have undergone a marked decline. The causes of negative population trends are largely unknown, but ecological conditions during winter in Africa may have carry-over effects during northward spring migration and reproduction.
In the January issue of Ecology Letters, Saino, Szép, Romano, Rubolini, and Møller analyse the effect of ecological conditions in the winter quarters on timing of arrival of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) to their Italian breeding grounds the following spring. An index of primary production obtained by satellite remote-sensing and reflecting the vigour of vegetation in an area between Ghana and the Republic of Centrafrica, where Italian swallows winter, predicted arrival date of individuals in consecutive breeding seasons. After favourable winters swallows arrived earlier and this had positive consequences for breeding success. Population trends of European long-distance migrants may thus depend on ecological conditions in their winter quarters.
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Movies of ultrafast electronic circuitry in space and time
Researchers at the University of Konstanz have successfully filmed the operations of extremely fast electronic circuitry in an electron microscope at a bandwidth of tens of terahertz. The increasing demand…
Reproducing the Moon’s surface environment on Earth
Implementation of an electrostatically charged environment to accelerate lunar base construction efforts. Continuous research is being conducted globally on using the Moon as an advanced base for deep space exploration,…