Protein that controls CAR T cell longevity

Like a lightbulb, CAR T cells designed to kill cancer often burn out due to exhaustion and poor persistence. Doan et al. discovered that a transcription factor called FOXO1 is responsible for keeping the CAR T lightbulb energized by activating genes which counteract exhaustion, promote persistence, and enhance CAR T cell antitumor activity. (Artwork by Gerardo Sotillo)
Credit: Gerardo Sotillo, Stanford Medicine

FOXO1 is required for memory in T cells and is associated with more durable clinical responses to CAR T cell therapy.

CAR T cell therapy has revolutionized the way certain types of cancer are treated, and the longer those CAR T cells live in a patient’s body, the more effectively they respond to cancer. Now, in a new study, researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and Stanford Medicine have found that a protein called FOXO1 improves the survival and function of CAR T cells, which may lead to more effective CAR T cell therapies and could potentially expand its use in difficult-to-treat cancers. The findings were published online today by the journal Nature.

T cells are a type of immune cell that recognize and kill pathogens in order to protect the host. Cancer is often able to evade the body’s immune system, but as a result of CAR T cell therapy, a patient’s own T cells can be reprogrammed to recognize and kill these cancer cells, which has led to FDA-approved treatments for certain types of lymphomas and leukemias.

However, fewer than 50% of patients who receive CAR T cell therapy remain cured after a year. One of the reasons for this is that CAR T cells often don’t survive long enough in patients to completely eradicate their cancer. Prior research has demonstrated that patients who are cured through CAR T cell therapy often have CAR T cells that live longer and can more successfully fight cancerous cells.

To determine what helps CAR T cells live longer, researchers wanted to understand the underlying biology behind memory T cells, which are a type of natural T cell whose purpose is to persist and retain function. One protein of interest, FOXO1, which activates genes associated with T cell memory, has previously been studied in mice but remains under-researched in human T cells or CAR T cells.

“By studying factors that drive memory in T cells, like FOXO1, we can enhance our understanding of why CAR T cells persist and work more effectively in some patients compared to others,” said senior study author Evan Weber, PhD, an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine and cell and gene therapy researcher within the CHOP Center for Childhood Cancer Research (CCCR) and the Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics (CCMT).

To learn more about the role of FOXO1 in human CAR T cells, the researchers in this study used CRISPR to delete FOXO1. They found that in the absence of FOXO1, human CAR T cells lose their ability to form a healthy memory cell or protect against cancer in an animal model, supporting the notion that FOXO1 controls memory and antitumor activity.

Researchers then applied methods to force CAR T cells to overexpress FOXO1, which turned on memory genes and enhanced their ability to persist and fight cancer in animal models. In contrast, when the researchers overexpressed a different memory-promoting factor, there was no improvement in CAR T cell activity, suggesting that FOXO1 plays a more unique role in promoting T cell longevity.

Importantly, researchers also found evidence that FOXO1 activity in patient samples correlates with persistence and long-term disease control, thereby implicating FOXO1 in clinical CAR T cell responses.

“These findings may help improve the design of CAR T cell therapies and potentially benefit a wider range of patients,” Weber said. “We are now collaborating with labs at CHOP to analyze CAR T cells from patients with exceptional persistence to identify other proteins like FOXO1 that could be leveraged to improve durability and therapeutic efficacy.”

This study was supported by the National Cancer Institute Immunotherapy Discover and Development grants 1U01CA232361-A1, K08CA23188-01, U01CA260852, and U54CA232568-01; the National Human Genome Research Institute grant K99 HGHG012579 (C.A.L.); the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy; V Foundation for Cancer Research; Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Rosenberg Scholar Award; Stand Up 2 Cancer – St. Baldrick’s – NCI grant SU2CAACR-DT1113; and the Virginia and D.K. Ludwig Fund for Cancer Research and NCI grant U2C CA233285.

Doan et al, “FOXO1 is a master regulator of memory programming in CAR T cells.” Nature. Online April 10, 2024. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-024-07300-8.

About Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: 

A non-profit, charitable organization, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia was founded in 1855 as the nation’s first pediatric hospital. Through its long-standing commitment to providing exceptional patient care, training new generations of pediatric healthcare professionals, and pioneering major research initiatives, the hospital has fostered many discoveries that have benefited children worldwide. Its pediatric research program is among the largest in the country. The institution has a well-established history of providing advanced pediatric care close to home through its CHOP Care Network, which includes more than 50 primary care practices, specialty care and surgical centers, urgent care centers, and community hospital alliances throughout Pennsylvania and New Jersey, as well as the Middleman Family Pavilion and its dedicated pediatric emergency department in King of Prussia. In addition, its unique family-centered care and public service programs have brought Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia recognition as a leading advocate for children and adolescents. For more information, visit

Journal: Nature
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-024-07300-8
Method of Research: Experimental study
Subject of Research: Cells
Article Title: FOXO1 is a master regulator of memory programming in CAR T cells
Article Publication Date: 10-Apr-2024

Media Contact

Ben Leach
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Office: 267-426-2857

Media Contact

Ben Leach
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

All latest news from the category: Life Sciences and Chemistry

Articles and reports from the Life Sciences and chemistry area deal with applied and basic research into modern biology, chemistry and human medicine.

Valuable information can be found on a range of life sciences fields including bacteriology, biochemistry, bionics, bioinformatics, biophysics, biotechnology, genetics, geobotany, human biology, marine biology, microbiology, molecular biology, cellular biology, zoology, bioinorganic chemistry, microchemistry and environmental chemistry.

Back to home

Comments (0)

Write a comment

Newest articles

Photonic chip integrates sensing and computing for ultrafast machine vision

Technology eliminates optical-electronic conversions, holds promise for revolutionizing edge intelligence. Researchers have demonstrated a new intelligent photonic sensing-computing chip that can process, transmit and reconstruct images of a scene within…

Pair plasmas found in deep space can now be generated in the lab

An international team of scientists has developed a novel way to experimentally produce plasma ‘fireballs’ on Earth. Black holes and neutron stars are among the densest known objects in the…

New fabric makes urban heat islands more bearable

With applications in clothing, construction and food storage, the new textile reduces heat from both the sun and thermal radiation from nearby buildings. This year has already seen massive heatwaves…

Partners & Sponsors