Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Trio of supermassive black holes shake space-time

25.06.2014

Astronomers have discovered three closely orbiting supermassive black holes in a galaxy more than 4 billion light years away. This is the tightest trio of black holes known to date. The discovery suggests that such closely packed supermassive black holes are far more common than previously thought.

An international research team, including Hans-Rainer Klöckner from MPIfR, performed VLBI observations at a number of frequencies to discover the inner two black holes of the system. In this project the Effelsberg 100m radio telescope took part in European VLBI network (EVN) observations covering two radio frequencies.


World map with radio telescopes of the EVN (European VLBI Network).

Image: EVN/JIVE.


Helical jets from one supermassive black hole caused by a very closely orbiting companion. The third black hole is farther away and emits relatively straight jets.

Image: Roger Deane (large image); NASA Goddard (inset bottom left; modified from original).

Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging and that should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some of those galaxies at a given time. The source under investigation was found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and has the catalog number SDSS J1502+1115. It is a quasar, the nucleus of an active galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.39, corresponding to a distance of more than four billion light years. A triple black hole system has been identified in that source, with two tight companions separated by less than 500 light years.

“What remains extraordinary to me is that these black holes, which are at the very extreme of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, are orbiting one another at 300 times the speed of sound on Earth”, says Roger Deane from University of Cape Town/South Africa, the lead author of the paper. “Not only that, but using the combined signals from radio telescopes on four continents we are able to observe this exotic system one third of the way across the Universe. It gives me great excitement as this is just scratching the surface of a long list of discoveries that will be made possible with the Square Kilometre Array.”

Such systems are important to understand for several reasons; in terms of galaxy evolution it is known that black holes influence how galaxies evolve, and understanding how often black holes themselves merge is key to this work. Furthermore, closely orbiting systems such as this are sources of gravitational waves in the Universe, if General Relativity is correct. Future radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be able to measure the gravitational waves from such systems as their orbits decrease.

At this point, very little is actually known about black hole systems that are so close to one another that they emit detectable gravitational waves. “This discovery not only suggests that close-pair black hole systems are much more common than previously expected, but also predicts that radio telescopes such as MeerKAT and African VLBI Network will directly assist in the detection and understanding of the gravitational wave signal”, says Matt Jarvis from the Universities of Oxford and the Western Cape. “Further in the future the SKA will allow us to find and study these systems in exquisite detail, and really allow us gain a much better understanding of how black holes shape galaxies over the history of the Universe.”

While the VLBI technique was essential to discover the inner two black holes (which are in fact the second closest pair of supermassive black holes known), Deane and co-authors have also shown that the binary black hole presence can be revealed by much larger scale features. The orbital motion of the black hole is imprinted onto its large jets, twisting them into a helical or corkscrew-like shape. So even though black holes may be so close together that our telescopes can’t tell them apart, their twisted jets may provide easy-to find pointers to them, much like using a flare to mark your location at sea. This may provide a way for sensitive future telescopes like MeerKAT and the SKA to find binary black holes with much greater efficiency.

“We have found the first needle in the “middle age” Universe and I hope that we will find much more and even closer systems of this kind in the near future”, concludes Hans-Rainer Klöckner from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, a co-author of the paper. “Such close-binaries will not only show us how supermassive black holes could grow or how they could alternate our space time, they will also help us to understand the inner workings and the interplay between jets and the accretion disc surrounding black holes.” This discovery is a prime example of how radio astronomy is done nowadays; it is an international and close collaboration accessing data products from various facilities distributed all over the globe.

The future will be bright with the SKA, the biggest radio telescope ever built, enabling such discoveries in international collaborations and hopefully Germany will find a way to support this endeavor also in future and enable its scientists and engineers to participate in the SKA project.

Original Paper:

A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black-hole system, by R. P. Deane, Z. Paragi, M. J. Jarvis, M. Coriat, G. Bernardi, R. P. Fender, S. Frey, I. Heywood, H.-R. Klöckner, K. Grainge & C. Rumsey, Nature Online, June 25, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13454 (after the embargo expires).

Local Contact:

Dr. Hans-Rainer Klöckner
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn.
Fon: +49 228-525-31
E-Mail: hkloeckner@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

Dr. Norbert Junkes,
Press and Public Outreach,
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie.
Fon: +49(0)228-525-399
E-mail: njunkes@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

International Contact:

Dr. Roger Deane
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Fon: +27 78 582-2308
E-Mail: roger.deane@ast.uct.ac.za

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/pressreleases/2014/7

Norbert Junkes | Max-Planck-Institut

Further reports about: Max-Planck-Institut Radioastronomie SDSS SKA Universe VLBI observations telescopes waves

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Astronomers discover class of strange objects near our galaxy's enormous black hole
16.01.2020 | University of California - Los Angeles

nachricht MOSHEMT—innovative transistor technology reaches record frequencies
16.01.2020 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik IAF

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Miniature double glazing: Material developed which is heat-insulating and heat-conducting at the same time

Styrofoam or copper - both materials have very different properties with regard to their ability to conduct heat. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz and the University of Bayreuth have now jointly developed and characterized a novel, extremely thin and transparent material that has different thermal conduction properties depending on the direction. While it can conduct heat extremely well in one direction, it shows good thermal insulation in the other direction.

Thermal insulation and thermal conduction play a crucial role in our everyday lives - from computer processors, where it is important to dissipate heat as...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IAF establishes an application laboratory for quantum sensors

In order to advance the transfer of research developments from the field of quantum sensor technology into industrial applications, an application laboratory is being established at Fraunhofer IAF. This will enable interested companies and especially regional SMEs and start-ups to evaluate the innovation potential of quantum sensors for their specific requirements. Both the state of Baden-Württemberg and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft are supporting the four-year project with one million euros each.

The application laboratory is being set up as part of the Fraunhofer lighthouse project »QMag«, short for quantum magnetometry. In this project, researchers...

Im Focus: How Cells Assemble Their Skeleton

Researchers study the formation of microtubules

Microtubules, filamentous structures within the cell, are required for many important processes, including cell division and intracellular transport. A...

Im Focus: World Premiere in Zurich: Machine keeps human livers alive for one week outside of the body

Researchers from the University Hospital Zurich, ETH Zurich, Wyss Zurich and the University of Zurich have developed a machine that repairs injured human livers and keep them alive outside the body for one week. This breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer.

Until now, livers could be stored safely outside the body for only a few hours. With the novel perfusion technology, livers - and even injured livers - can now...

Im Focus: SuperTIGER on its second prowl -- 130,000 feet above Antarctica

A balloon-borne scientific instrument designed to study the origin of cosmic rays is taking its second turn high above the continent of Antarctica three and a half weeks after its launch.

SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is designed to measure the rare, heavy elements in cosmic rays that hold clues about their origins...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

„Advanced Battery Power“- Conference, Contributions are welcome!

07.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new 'cool' blue

17.01.2020 | Life Sciences

EU-project SONAR: Better batteries for electricity from renewable energy sources

17.01.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Neuromuscular organoid: It’s contracting!

17.01.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>