Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pigment formulated 225 years ago could be key in emerging technologies

04.08.2006
Imagine turning on your computer and not having to wait for it to load the operating system, virus protection, firewalls and other programs. Imagine that random access memory is accessible immediately, like turning on room lights.

That could be the reality of future devices that allow electrons to be manipulated by their magnetic properties as well as by their electrical charge. The ability to manipulate electrons' magnetism, in addition to controlling their charge flow, has the potential to create broad new capabilities for computers and other devices and is the basis for an emerging technology called "spintronics." A major barrier to creating such devices is finding nonvolatile magnetic semiconductor materials, ones that don't demagnetize easily. So far the only materials found that meet the requirements operate only at a decidedly uncomfortable 200 degrees below zero Celsius, about minus 328 Fahrenheit.

But now researchers at the University of Washington have demonstrated a material – a mixture of zinc oxide and cobalt first formulated in 1780 as a pigment called cobalt green – that appears capable of operating in more suitable environments and would allow electrons to be manipulated both electrically and magnetically.

"The big challenge is to develop materials that can perform these kinds of functions not just at cryogenic temperatures but at practical temperatures," said Daniel Gamelin, a UW assistant professor of chemistry. "The breakthrough with the materials we tested is that they exhibit their magnetic properties at room temperature."

Silicon-based semiconductors that incorporate many tiny transistors are at the heart of computers and an array of other devices. But while silicon chips allow complex manipulation of electrons based on their charges, current chip technology is not useful for manipulating the electrons' magnetism, or spin.

It is believed the simplest way to manipulate an electron's magnetic state in a semiconductor device is by using a semiconductor material such as silicon or zinc oxide that incorporates magnetic elements. Previous research has suggested that some such magnetic semiconductors could operate at room temperature, but there has been strong debate about whether the results actually support that conclusion.

To test cobalt green, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., processed zinc oxide, a semiconductor with a simple chemical structure, so a small number of zinc ions were replaced with cobalt ions, which are magnetic. Then, in Gamelin's UW lab, the cobalt ions were aligned – making the material magnetic – by exposure to zinc metal vapor, which introduces extra electrons to the zinc oxide. The magnetic properties remained strong at room temperature even when the vapor exposure ended. When the cobalt-doped zinc oxide was heated in air, the researchers observed the extra electrons dissipate and the magnetic properties disappear, in a way that demonstrated the two are interdependent.

"This work shows there is a real effect here, and there is promise for these materials," Gamelin said. "The next step is to try to get these materials to interface with silicon semiconductors."

The bright bluish-green mixture of zinc oxide and cobalt, called cobalt green or Rinman's green, was first devised as an art pigment in the 19th century by Swedish chemist Sven Rinman. The low concentration of magnetic cobalt ions made it a good candidate for testing as a spintronics material, Gamelin said.

He is corresponding author of a paper describing the work, published in the July 21 Physical Review Letters. Co-authors are Kevin Kittilstved and Dana Schwartz, UW chemistry doctoral students, and Allan Tuan, Steve Heald and Scott Chambers of the Pacific Northwest lab. The work was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Research Corp., the Dreyfus Foundation, the Sloan Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Because development of these materials is in the early stages, it is not yet clear what their final properties will be, and their final properties will determine how they can be used, Gamelin said. But eventually such materials could have profound impact on computers and digital devices, from the way they are used to their power requirements.

"For instance, the general sense is that you will use a lot less power in these devices, so you will need a lot less cooling capacity," he said. "That would be a major advance."

Vince Stricherz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.washington.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht JILA researchers make coldest quantum gas of molecules
22.02.2019 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

nachricht (Re)solving the jet/cocoon riddle of a gravitational wave event
22.02.2019 | Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: (Re)solving the jet/cocoon riddle of a gravitational wave event

An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, a so-called jet, emerging from the only gravitational wave event involving two neutron stars observed so far. With its high sensitivity and excellent performance, the 100-m radio telescope in Effelsberg played an important role in the observations.

In August 2017, two neutron stars were observed colliding, producing gravitational waves that were detected by the American LIGO and European Virgo detectors....

Im Focus: Light from a roll – hybrid OLED creates innovative and functional luminous surfaces

Up to now, OLEDs have been used exclusively as a novel lighting technology for use in luminaires and lamps. However, flexible organic technology can offer much more: as an active lighting surface, it can be combined with a wide variety of materials, not just to modify but to revolutionize the functionality and design of countless existing products. To exemplify this, the Fraunhofer FEP together with the company EMDE development of light GmbH will be presenting hybrid flexible OLEDs integrated into textile designs within the EU-funded project PI-SCALE for the first time at LOPEC (March 19-21, 2019 in Munich, Germany) as examples of some of the many possible applications.

The Fraunhofer FEP, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, has long been involved in the development of...

Im Focus: Regensburg physicists watch electron transfer in a single molecule

For the first time, an international team of scientists based in Regensburg, Germany, has recorded the orbitals of single molecules in different charge states in a novel type of microscopy. The research findings are published under the title “Mapping orbital changes upon electron transfer with tunneling microscopy on insulators” in the prestigious journal “Nature”.

The building blocks of matter surrounding us are atoms and molecules. The properties of that matter, however, are often not set by these building blocks...

Im Focus: University of Konstanz gains new insights into the recent development of the human immune system

Scientists at the University of Konstanz identify fierce competition between the human immune system and bacterial pathogens

Cell biologists from the University of Konstanz shed light on a recent evolutionary process in the human immune system and publish their findings in the...

Im Focus: Transformation through Light

Laser physicists have taken snapshots of carbon molecules C₆₀ showing how they transform in intense infrared light

When carbon molecules C₆₀ are exposed to an intense infrared light, they change their ball-like structure to a more elongated version. This has now been...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Global Legal Hackathon at HAW Hamburg

11.02.2019 | Event News

The world of quantum chemistry meets in Heidelberg

30.01.2019 | Event News

Our digital society in 2040

16.01.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

JILA researchers make coldest quantum gas of molecules

22.02.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Understanding high efficiency of deep ultraviolet LEDs

22.02.2019 | Materials Sciences

Russian scientists show changes in the erythrocyte nanostructure under stress

22.02.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>