The researchers believe that these advances will ultimately improve the treatment of stroke patients, whether by giving emergency medical technicians (EMT) the ability to quickly scan the heads of potential stroke victims while in the ambulance or allowing physicians to easily monitor in real time the patients’ response to therapy at the bedside.
The results of the latest studies were reported online in the journal Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Duke Translational Medicine Institute, with assistance from the Duke Echocardiography Laboratory.
“To our knowledge, this is the first time that real time 3-D ultrasound provided clear images of the major arteries within the brain,” said Nikolas Ivancevich, graduate student in Duke’s Pratt School of Engineering and first author of the paper. “Also for the first time, we have been able overcome the most challenging aspect of using ultrasound to scan the brain – the skull.”
The Duke laboratory, led by biomedical engineering professor Stephen Smith, has a long track record of modifying traditional 2-D ultrasound – like that used to image babies in utero – into more advanced 3-D scans, which can provide more detailed information. After inventing the technique in 1991, the team has shown its utility in developing specialized catheters and endoscopes for imaging the heart and blood vessels.
“This is an important step forward for scanning the vessels of the brain through the skull, and we believe that there are now no major technological barriers to ultimately using 3-D ultrasound to quickly diagnose stroke patients,” said Smith, senior author of the paper.
“I think it’s safe to say that within five to 10 years, the technology will be miniaturized to the point where EMTs in an ambulance can scan the brain of a stroke patient and transmit the results ahead to the hospital,” Smith continued. “Speed is important because the only approved medical treatment for stroke must be given within three hours of the first symptoms.”
Ultrasound devices emit sound waves and then create images by calculating the angle of the waves as they bounce back.
For their experiments, the Duke team studied 17 healthy people. After injecting them with a contrast dye to enhance the images, the researchers aimed ultrasound “wands,” or transducers, into the brain from three vantage points – the temples on each side of the head and upwards from the base of the neck. The temple locations were chosen because the skull is thinnest at these points.
Ivancevich took this approach one step further to compensate for the thickness and unevenness of the skull in one subject.
“The speed of the sound waves is faster in bone than it is in soft tissue, so we took measurements to better understand how the bone alters the movement of sound waves,” Ivancevich explained. “With this knowledge, we were able to program the computer to ‘correct’ for the skull’s interference, resulting in even clearer images of the arteries.”
The key to obtaining these images lies in the design of the transducer. In traditional 2-D ultrasound, the sound is emitted by a row of sensors. In the new design, the sensors are arranged in a checkerboard fashion, allowing compensation for the skull's thickness over a whole area, instead of a single line.
The 3-D ultrasound has the benefit of being less expensive and faster than the traditional methods of assessing blood flow in the brain – MRI or CT scanning, Ivancevich said. Though 3-D ultrasound will not totally displace MRI or CT scans, he said that the new technology would give physicians more flexibility in treating their patients.
Richard Merritt | EurekAlert!
Researchers discover link between magnetic field strength and temperature
21.08.2018 | American Institute of Physics
Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte
17.08.2018 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
21.08.2018 | Life Sciences
21.08.2018 | Medical Engineering