Microorganisms are considered as dirty organism that threaten our health, decay food and cause inconvenience in our daily life. However, they are playing a critical role in making nutrients by metabolizing food, allowing all living creatures to live on. Especially, there are 2,000 kinds of microorganisms and several hundred trillions in figures living in our body. Most of these microorganisms live in digestive tracts but their effect is shown in our entire body. Recently, the research team of POSTECH (Pohang University of Science and Technology, President Moohwan Kim) discovered how microbiota transmit signals to entire body and control hematopoiesis in the bone marrow.
Professor Seung-Woo Lee, Research Professor Yunji Park, Master/PhD integrated program students, Seungwon Lee and Hyekang Kim of Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology from POSTECH described the mechanism how microbiota signals are sent to different organs.
CX3CR1+ mononuclear cells (colored in green) are contacting hematopoietic progenitors (colored in purple) in the bone marrow. When CX3CR1+ mononuclear cells recognize the microbiota signals, they produce inflammatory cytokines which expedite the hematopoiesis.
Credit: POHANG UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (POSTECH)
Also, they utilized imaging research to prove that CX3CR+ mononuclear cells contact hematopoietic progenitors for the first time in history. Their research is introduced as a featured content in the journal of the American Society of Hematology, Blood.
Recent researches on microorganism concluded that microbiota control biological phenomenon not only in digestive tracts but also in lung, liver, brain, bone marrow and other organs. But, none of them were able to define a mechanism for relaying microbiota signals to entire body or for producing immune cells by receiving microbiota signals.
Professor Lee and his research team focused on the fact that the microbiota regulate the immune system of our body by controlling hematopoiesis in the bone marrow to produce white blood cells. In this process, the team discovered that the microbiota signal including bacterial DNA is transferred to the bone marrow through bloodstream and CX3CR1+ mononuclear cells in the bone marrow recognize this signal.
They explained that when CX3CR1+ mononuclear cells recognize microbiota signals, they release signal substances called cytokines which control and stimulate body's defense system through the signal transduction. They also explained that cytokines control the number of hematopoietic progenitors or stimulate differentiation into myeloid lineages to make blood cells.
Furthermore, they verified that CX3CR1+ mononuclear cells contact hematopoietic progenitors at the perivascular region and they play as a signal receiving microbiota signals.
They discovered the hematopoiesis control mechanism which is controlled by cytokines produced when CX3CR1+ mononuclear cells recognize microbiota signals transferred to the bone marrow.
Professor Seung-Woo Lee commented, "For the first time, our research describes the mechanism that had not been explained how microbiota regulate not only digestive tracts but also entire body response. It might be possible to apply this study to control immune response in other parts of a body or to treat cancer and inflammatory disease via microbiota signal pathway.
This study was financially supported by National Research Foundation of Korea, Regional Leading Research Center, and Korea Ministry of Science and ICT under BK21 Plus project.
Jinyoung Huh | EurekAlert!
Human skin is an important source of ammonia emissions
27.05.2020 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie
Biotechnology: Triggered by light, a novel way to switch on an enzyme
27.05.2020 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
In living cells, enzymes drive biochemical metabolic processes enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very ability which allows them to be used as catalysts in biotechnology, for example to create chemical products such as pharmaceutics. Researchers now identified an enzyme that, when illuminated with blue light, becomes catalytically active and initiates a reaction that was previously unknown in enzymatics. The study was published in "Nature Communications".
Enzymes: they are the central drivers for biochemical metabolic processes in every living cell, enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very...
Early detection of tumors is extremely important in treating cancer. A new technique developed by researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from normal tissue. The work is published May 25 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from...
Microelectronics as a key technology enables numerous innovations in the field of intelligent medical technology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT coordinates the BMBF cooperative project "I-call" realizing the first electronic system for ultrasound-based, safe and interference-resistant data transmission between implants in the human body.
When microelectronic systems are used for medical applications, they have to meet high requirements in terms of biocompatibility, reliability, energy...
Thomas Heine, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at TU Dresden, together with his team, first predicted a topological 2D polymer in 2019. Only one year later, an international team led by Italian researchers was able to synthesize these materials and experimentally prove their topological properties. For the renowned journal Nature Materials, this was the occasion to invite Thomas Heine to a News and Views article, which was published this week. Under the title "Making 2D Topological Polymers a reality" Prof. Heine describes how his theory became a reality.
Ultrathin materials are extremely interesting as building blocks for next generation nano electronic devices, as it is much easier to make circuits and other...
Scientists took a leukocyte as the blueprint and developed a microrobot that has the size, shape and moving capabilities of a white blood cell. Simulating a blood vessel in a laboratory setting, they succeeded in magnetically navigating the ball-shaped microroller through this dynamic and dense environment. The drug-delivery vehicle withstood the simulated blood flow, pushing the developments in targeted drug delivery a step further: inside the body, there is no better access route to all tissues and organs than the circulatory system. A robot that could actually travel through this finely woven web would revolutionize the minimally-invasive treatment of illnesses.
A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) in Stuttgart invented a tiny microrobot that resembles a white blood cell...
19.05.2020 | Event News
07.04.2020 | Event News
06.04.2020 | Event News
28.05.2020 | Transportation and Logistics
28.05.2020 | Physics and Astronomy
28.05.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering