Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists recreate blood-brain barrier defect outside the body

07.06.2019

Scientists can't make a living copy of your brain outside your body. That's the stuff of science fiction. But in a new study, they recreated a critical brain component, the blood-brain barrier, that functioned as it would in the individual who provided the cells to make it. Their achievement - detailed in a study published today in the peer-reviewed journal Cell Stem Cell - provides a new way to make discoveries about brain disorders and, potentially, predict which drugs will work best for an individual patient.

The blood-brain barrier acts as a gatekeeper by blocking toxins and other foreign substances in the bloodstream from entering brain tissue and damaging it. It also can prevent potential therapeutic drugs from reaching the brain.


Organ-Chip recreates the microenvironment that cells require to exhibit an unprecedented level of biological function and to behave like they do in the human body.

Credit: Emulate, Inc.

Neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which collectively affect millions of people, have been linked to defective blood-brain barriers that keep out biomolecules needed for healthy brain activity.

For their study, a team led by Cedars-Sinai investigators generated stem cells known as induced pluripotent stem cells, which can produce any type of cell, using an individual adult's blood samples. They used these special cells to make neurons, blood-vessel linings and support cells that together make up the blood-brain barrier.

The team then placed the various types of cells inside Organ-Chips, which recreated the body's microenvironment with the natural physiology and mechanical forces that cells experience within the human body.

The living cells soon formed a functioning unit of a blood-brain barrier that functions as it does in the body, including blocking entry of certain drugs. Significantly, when this blood-brain barrier was derived from cells of patients with Huntington's disease or Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a rare congenital neurological disorder, the barrier malfunctioned in the same way that it does in patients with these diseases.

While scientists have created blood-brain barriers outside the body before, this study further advanced the science by using induced pluripotent stem cells to generate a functioning blood-brain barrier, inside an Organ-Chip, that displayed a characteristic defect of the individual patient's disease.

The study's findings open a promising pathway for precision medicine, said Clive Svendsen, PhD, director of the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute. "The possibility of using a patient-specific, multicellular model of a blood-brain barrier on a chip represents a new standard for developing predictive, personalized medicine," he said. Svendsen, professor of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, was the senior author of the study.

The research combined the innovative stem cell science from investigators at Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles with the advanced Organs-on-Chips technology of Emulate, Inc. in Boston. Emulate's Human Emulation System recreates the microenvironment that cells require to exhibit an unprecedented level of biological function and to behave like they do in the human body. The system consists of instrumentation, software apps, and Organ-Chips, about the size of AA batteries, with tiny fluidic channels lined with tens of thousands of living human cells.

The co-first authors of the study are Gad Vatine, PhD, from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer Sheva, Israel, a former postdoctoral scientist at Cedars-Sinai; Riccardo Barrile, PhD, of Emulate, a former postdoctoral fellow at Cedars-Sinai; and Michael Workman, a PhD student in the Cedars-Sinai Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

The research is one of several collaborative projects involving Cedars-Sinai and Emulate, Inc., which In February 2018 announced a joint Patient-on-a-Chip program to help predict which disease treatments would be most effective based on a patient's genetic makeup and disease variant. The program is an initiative of Cedars-Sinai Precision Health, whose goal is to drive the development of the newest technology and best research, coupled with the finest clinical practice, to rapidly enable a new era of personalized health.

###

Disclosure: Cedars-Sinai owns a minority stock interest in Emulate, Inc. An officer of Cedars-Sinai serves on Emulate's board of directors. Emulate provided no financial support for this research. Six of the study's authors are employees and shareholders of Emulate.

Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under award number 1UG3NS105703, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, The ALS Association, the Sherman Family Foundation and the Israel Science Foundation.

DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2019.05.011

Read more on the Cedars-Sinai Blog: What Are Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells?

Media Contact

Jane Engle
Jane.Engle@cshs.org
310-248-8545

 @cedarssinai

http://www.csmc.edu 

Jane Engle | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cedars-sinai.org/newsroom/scientists-recreate-blood-brain-barrier-defect-outside-the-body/
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2019.05.011

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A study demonstrates that p38 protein regulates the formation of new blood vessels
17.07.2019 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

nachricht For bacteria, the neighbors co-determine which cell dies first: The physiology of survival
17.07.2019 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Megakaryocytes act as „bouncers“ restraining cell migration in the bone marrow

Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as “bouncers” and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the Journal “Haematologica”.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming blood cells, which occurs predominantly in the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red...

Im Focus: Artificial neural network resolves puzzles from condensed matter physics: Which is the perfect quantum theory?

For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.

Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking...

Im Focus: Extremely hard yet metallically conductive: Bayreuth researchers develop novel material with high-tech prospects

An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".

The possibility of finding a compound that was metallically conductive, super-hard, and ultra-incompressible was long considered unlikely in science. It was...

Im Focus: Modelling leads to the optimum size for platinum fuel cell catalysts: Activity of fuel cell catalysts doubled

An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has built platinum nanoparticles for catalysis in fuel cells: The new size-optimized catalysts are twice as good as the best process commercially available today.

Fuel cells may well replace batteries as the power source for electric cars. They consume hydrogen, a gas which could be produced for example using surplus...

Im Focus: The secret of mushroom colors

Mushrooms: Darker fruiting bodies in cold climates

The fly agaric with its red hat is perhaps the most evocative of the diverse and variously colored mushroom species. Hitherto, the purpose of these colors was...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tracking down climate change with radar eyes

17.07.2019 | Earth Sciences

Researchers build transistor-like gate for quantum information processing -- with qudits

17.07.2019 | Information Technology

A new material for the battery of the future, made in UCLouvain

17.07.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>