Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Protein shown to rally biological clock

01.12.2006
'Pony Express' protein

A biologist at Washington University in St. Louis and his collaborators have identified the factor in mammalian brain cells that keeps cells in synchrony so that functions like the wake-sleep cycle, hormone secretion and loco motor behaviors are coordinated daily over a 24-hour period.

Erik Herzog, Ph.D., Washington University associate professor of Biology in Arts & Sciences, Sara Aton, Ph.D., a graduate student in Herzog’s lab who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, James Huettner, Ph.D., associate professor in cell biology and physiology at the Washington

University School of Medicine, and Martin Straume, a biostatistician, have determined that VIP ¬– vasoactive intestinal polypeptide – is the rallying protein that signals the brain’s biological clock to coordinate daily rhythms in behavior and physiology.

... more about:
»GABA »Neuron »SCN »VIP

The finding clarifies the roles that both VIP and a neurotransmitter GABA play in synchronizing biological clocks, and sheds light on how mammals, in this case mice and rats. regulate circadian rhythm. Results were published in the Nov. 27- Dec. 1 online issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Neurons in the biological clock, an area called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located at the base of the brain right across the optic nerve, keep 24-hour time and are normally highly synchronized. The SCN is composed of 10,000 neurons on one side of the hypothalamus, and 10,000 on the other. Together these neurons are intrinsic clocks in communication with each other to keep 24-hour time.

It had been thought that GABA was the prime candidate for the rallying role. All SCN neurons make this inhibitory neurotransmitter, and it had been shown that giving GABA daily at 8 a.m. to SCN cells synchronizes them.

“The surprise was that GABA was not needed,” said Herzog. “VIP synchronizes even when we block all GABA signaling. When we blocked GABA, synchrony was perfectly fine. Instead, the oscillations got bigger.”

Herzog likens VIP to the Pony Express rider telling all the SCN cells to synchronize their ; GABA, he says, is like the marshal that prevents he cells from being too active.

Herzog and Aton recorded neuron activity from the SCN using a multielectrode array with 60 electrodes upon which they place SCN cells, a “clock in a dish.” They also recorded gene expression in real-time using a bioluminescent reporter of gene activity.

Using drugs or genetic knock out mice, they negated the role of GABA and recorded the electrical activity of many neurons, what Herzog calls the “hands of the clock,” and the gene activities, “the cogs of the clock,” of many SCN cells.

They found that, without GABA, the cells marched together, but without VIP, they lost synchrony, indicating that VIP is the coordinator.

Tony Fitzpatrick | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

Further reports about: GABA Neuron SCN VIP

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bioenergy cropland expansion could be as bad for biodiversity as climate change
11.12.2018 | Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseen

nachricht How glial cells develop in the brain from neural precursor cells
11.12.2018 | Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Researchers develop method to transfer entire 2D circuits to any smooth surface

What if a sensor sensing a thing could be part of the thing itself? Rice University engineers believe they have a two-dimensional solution to do just that.

Rice engineers led by materials scientists Pulickel Ajayan and Jun Lou have developed a method to make atom-flat sensors that seamlessly integrate with devices...

Im Focus: Three components on one chip

Scientists at the University of Stuttgart and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) succeed in important further development on the way to quantum Computers.

Quantum computers one day should be able to solve certain computing problems much faster than a classical computer. One of the most promising approaches is...

Im Focus: Substitute for rare earth metal oxides

New Project SNAPSTER: Novel luminescent materials by encapsulating phosphorescent metal clusters with organic liquid crystals

Nowadays energy conversion in lighting and optoelectronic devices requires the use of rare earth oxides.

Im Focus: A bit of a stretch... material that thickens as it's pulled

Scientists have discovered the first synthetic material that becomes thicker - at the molecular level - as it is stretched.

Researchers led by Dr Devesh Mistry from the University of Leeds discovered a new non-porous material that has unique and inherent "auxetic" stretching...

Im Focus: The force of the vacuum

Scientists from the Theory Department of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg have shown through theoretical calculations and computer simulations that the force between electrons and lattice distortions in an atomically thin two-dimensional superconductor can be controlled with virtual photons. This could aid the development of new superconductors for energy-saving devices and many other technical applications.

The vacuum is not empty. It may sound like magic to laypeople but it has occupied physicists since the birth of quantum mechanics.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

Expert Panel on the Future of HPC in Engineering

03.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Some brain tumors may respond to immunotherapy, new study suggests

11.12.2018 | Studies and Analyses

Researchers image atomic structure of important immune regulator

11.12.2018 | Health and Medicine

Physicists edge closer to controlling chemical reactions

11.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>