Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

COX-2 levels are elevated in smokers

17.01.2005


Tobacco smoke triggers the production of COX-2, a cellular protein linked to the development and progression of cancer, according to research published in the January 15 issue of the journal Cancer Research.



Tobacco smoke also promoted rapid cellular production of two proteins that initiate an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) driven cascade leading to the production of COX-2, the report stated.

The report by Andrew J. Dannenberg, M.D., director of cancer prevention, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, and colleagues, indicates that smokers produce as much as four times the amount of COX-2 in oral mucosal cells lining their mouths than their non-smoking counterparts.


After observing the increased amount of COX-2 in the oral mucosa of smokers, Dannenberg and his team of collaborating scientists exposed cells in culture to tobacco smoke to define the mechanism underlying smoke-induced elevation of COX-2.

The researchers determined that COX-2 levels were increased due to tobacco smoke induced activation of EGFR, a cell membrane protein also associated with various types of cancer. Tobacco smoke stimulated the oral mucosal cells to rapidly release two proteins that activate the EGFR, initiating a cascade resulting in COX-2 protein production. "In an oral mucosal cell line, tobacco smoke clearly activated the epidermal growth factor receptor. Tobacco smoke caused increased EGFR phosphorylation leading to increased COX-2 production," Dannenberg reported.

"We were able to block the induction of COX-2 with either a small molecule that inhibited EGFR activity or an antibody that prevented ligands from binding to and activating the EGFR. These findings led us to question whether tobacco smoke initiated the process of increasing COX-2 production by first stimulating production of proteins that controlled activity of the EGF receptor," Dannenberg said.

Cells exposed to tobacco smoke increased production of two EGFR ligands, or proteins that bind to and activate the growth factor receptor. Tobacco smoke exposed oral mucosal cells produced more amphiregulin and TGF-alpha, both of which trigger EGFR function. "Cellular release of both of these EGFR ligands occurred quickly after exposure to tobacco smoke," Dannenberg said. These findings appear to be directly relevant to people because increased levels of both proteins were also detected in oral biopsies from smokers. "These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which tobacco smoke causes cancer. Mutations can only occur in proliferating cells and activation of EGFR signaling enhances cell proliferation," Dannenberg said. "These results strengthen the rational for targeting not only COX-2, but also EGFR as approaches for reducing the risk of tobacco-related malignancies of the mouth and throat," Dannenberg said.

Dannenberg investigated the mechanism of tobacco smoke effects on oral mucosa with team of scientists including Dimitrios Moraitis, M.D., Jay O. Boyle, M.D., and Erik G. Cohen, M.D., Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, N.Y; Baoheng Du, M.D., Mariana S. De Lorenzo, Ph.D., Babette B. Weksler, M.D., Kotha Subbaramaiah, Ph.D., John F. Carew, M.D., and Nasser K. Altorki, M.D., Weil Medical College of Cornell University, New York, N.Y.; and Levy Kopelovich, Ph.D., National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, M.D.

Russell Vanderboom, Ph.D | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aacr.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht World’s Largest Study on Allergic Rhinitis Reveals new Risk Genes
17.07.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Plant mothers talk to their embryos via the hormone auxin
17.07.2018 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microscopic trampoline may help create networks of quantum computers

17.07.2018 | Information Technology

In borophene, boundaries are no barrier

17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

The role of Sodium for the Enhancement of Solar Cells

17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>