Charles Darwin, the founder of the modern theory of evolution, was an avid proponent of sympatric speciation, the idea that a single species need not be geographically divided in order to evolve into two separate species. In the mid-20th century, however, certain vocal scientists convinced the scientific community that geographically isolating two halves of a population was a necessary factor in creating a new species. It wasn’t until the last few decades that modern biologists began to reexamine Darwin’s ideas to discover that he may have been quite right all along. Now the theory behind one such idea is undergoing its most exhaustive test yet at the University of Rochester.
James D. Fry, assistant professor of biology, is running fruit flies through a series of tests to see if a few, subtle changes in the flies’ environment could be enough to trigger the creation of a new species.
"For a long time there has been speculation that small differences in the environment coupled with small differences in the way organisms behave could lead to speciation without any other external factors," says Fry. "This is this first time this idea has been tested in the same way it might happen in nature. If we can get the flies to start exhibiting changes with these tests, then it’s very likely that it can happen easily in nature."
Jonathan Sherwood | EurekAlert!
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Thin-film solar cells made of crystalline silicon are inexpensive and achieve efficiencies of a good 14 percent. However, they could do even better if their shiny surfaces reflected less light. A team led by Prof. Christiane Becker from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has now patented a sophisticated new solution to this problem.
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A study in the journal Bulletin of Marine Science describes a new, blood-red species of octocoral found in Panama. The species in the genus Thesea was discovered in the threatened low-light reef environment on Hannibal Bank, 60 kilometers off mainland Pacific Panama, by researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama (STRI) and the Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) at the University of Costa Rica.
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