Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in Western countries: both men and women face a lifetime risk of nearly 6% for the development of invasive colorectal cancer. Epidemiologic studies have shown that several factors contribute to the development of this disease, such as high fat, red-meat diet, obesity and lack of vegetables and fibre in the diet.
In the great majority of cases, colorectal cancer arises from an initially benign overgrowth of colonic lining, a so-called adenomatous polyp (Fig. 1), which acquires with time harmful mutations and transforms into a dangerous colonic carcinoma. Observational studies suggest that the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence takes up to 10 years. Although nearly half of Western population may harbor adenomatous polyps by the age of 50, it is estimated that only a few percent of adenomas will progress to cancer.
The study published as an advance online publication of Cancer Cell, describe a mechanism by which harmless colon polyps acquire the ability to form malignant tumors. Researchers from the University of Helsinki discovered that PROX1, a protein that in embryos controls formation of normal organs, such as liver or eye, becomes abnormally overproduced at early stages of carcinoma development. PROX1 allows tumor cells to grow even in the absence of stimulating signals from surrounding normal tissues, which leads to dangerous overgrowth and development of advanced tumors. Removal of PROX1 from cancer cells reverses their malignant behaviour, suggesting that PROX1 is a promising target for the development of future therapies for colon cancer.
The study was led by the Academy of Finland Research Fellow, Dr. Tatiana Petrova and the Academy Professor, Dr. Kari Alitalo, who jointly supervised the work of a graduate student of Helsinki University Antti Nykänen. The research is a result of collaboration between cancer and developmental biologists, pathologists, geneticists and bioinformaticians from Finland, USA, France, UK and Austria.
The research in the laboratories of Dr. Tatiana Petrova and Dr. Kari Alitalo is supported by the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Association for International Cancer Research, the Academy of Finland and Finnish Cancer Organizations.
Paivi Lehtinen | alfa
Cell Division at High Speed
19.06.2019 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
Monitoring biodiversity with sound: how machines can enrich our knowledge
18.06.2019 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.
Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...
The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified
The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...
Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.
Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...
Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.
The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...
Discovery by Brazilian and US researchers could change the classification of two species, which appear more akin to jellyfish than was thought.
The tube anemone Isarachnanthus nocturnus is only 15 cm long but has the largest mitochondrial genome of any animal sequenced to date, with 80,923 base pairs....
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
19.06.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
19.06.2019 | Information Technology
19.06.2019 | Materials Sciences