In animal experiments on both simple organisms like fruit flies and in more complex animals like mice, researchers have seen that stimulating autophagy leads to increased longevity. It is still unclear whether these results are directly translatable to humans.
The picture shows cells which synthesizes a green fluorescent protein attached to autophagosomes and visible in a fluorescense microscope. The cell nuclei are coloured blue. In the left picture normal cells are shown, whilst the ones to the right lacks SNX18. The cells without SNX18 have significantly fewer autophagosomes.
Photo: Umeå University
However, there are theories that calorie restriction, which is a relatively well-established way of increasing longevity, induces higher levels of autophagy, which would help delay aging.
Cells metabolize their old proteins and cell organelles by breaking them down in a process called autophagy. The term comes from Greek and means roughly to eat oneself. Autophagy is important in cleaning out defective components that otherwise can damage cells and cause diseases.
Molecules that are to be broken down are enclosed in a membrane vesicle that forms an organelle called an autophagosome. This then merges with a lysosome, a cell organelle containing many different enzymes that are specialized in breaking down biomolecules. The metabolic products can then be recycled by the cells to synthesize new molecules.Karin Håberg’s studies show that SNX18 binds to and can reshape cell membranes. Her studies of the role played by SNX18 in autophagy showed that when the cells’ production of SNX18 was stopped by RNA interference, the number of autophagosomes declined drastically, thereby inhibiting the autophagy process.
When the cells were manipulated instead to overproduce SNX18, the number of autophagosomes increased. Karin Håberg was also able to demonstrate that it is precisely the capacity to re-model membranes that is the key to SNX18’s function in the formation of autophagosomes. The studies of autophagy were conducted in collaboration with a research team at Oslo University led by Dr. Anne Simonsen.
Bertil Born | idw
Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover
First transcription atlas of all wheat genes expands prospects for research and cultivation
17.08.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Life Sciences