Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Noninvasive genetic test for Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome highly accurate

06.06.2012
New study published in American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Current screening strategies for Down syndrome, caused by fetal trisomy 21 (T21), and Edwards syndrome, caused by fetal trisomy 18 (T18), have false positive rates of 2 to 3%, and false negative rates of 5% or higher. Positive screening results must be confirmed by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which carry a fetal loss rate of approximately 1 in 300 procedures.

Now an international, multicenter cohort study finds that a genetic test to screen for trisomy 21 or 18 from a maternal blood sample is almost 100% accurate. The results of the study are published online in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

The trial evaluated a novel assay known as Digital Analysis of Selected Regions (DANSR) that analyzes fetal cell-free DNA, small DNA fragments which circulate in maternal blood. Unlike similar tests that analyze DNA from the entire genome, DANSR analyzes only the chromosomes under investigation for a more efficient and less expensive process. The results are evaluated with a novel analysis algorithm, the Fetal-fraction Optimized Risk of Trisomy Evaluation (FORTE), which considers age-related risks and the percentage of fetal DNA in the sample to provide an individualized risk score for trisomy detection.

A total of 4,002 pregnant women from the United States, the Netherlands, and Sweden were enrolled in the NICE (Non-Invasive Chromosomal Evaluation) study. The mean maternal age was 34.3 years and the cohort was racially and ethnically diverse. Blood samples were taken before the women underwent invasive testing for any indication, and 774 samples were excluded prior to analysis. Of the 3,228 samples that underwent analysis, 57 cases were excluded due to low fetal cfDNA in the sample and 91 samples were excluded due to failure of the assay. The classification of samples as High Risk or Low Risk using the DANSR and FORTE method was compared with the results from amniocentesis and CVS.

The DANSR and FORTE method identified 100% of the 81 T21 cases as High Risk, and there was one false positive among the 2,888 normal cases, for a false-positive rate of 0.03%. Of the 38 T18 cases, 37 were classified as High Risk and there were 2 false positives among the 2,888 normal cases, for a sensitivity of 97.4% and a false positive rate of 0.07%.

Prior studies of cfDNA have been case-control studies, comparing detection in subjects identified with T21 or T18, to a selected group of those with normal karyotypes. The current study included a large cohort of subjects undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis. This allowed the researchers to assess the potential impact of other complex and unusual abnormalities on cfDNA test results. Overall, the presence of other chromosomal variants did not interfere with the detection of T21 or T18. While the study included primarily high-risk women, all women undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis for any indication were eligible, so the cohort represents a broader population than reported in previous studies.

"The improvement in sequencing efficiency achieved by the DANSR platform provides a more affordable, scalable approach to cfDNA analysis with high throughput and potential for widespread clinical utility," says lead investigator Mary E. Norton, MD, director of perinatal research, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University. "Cell-free DNA offers high accuracy with a single blood test. It is potentially suitable as a replacement for current, relatively inefficient aneuploidy screening."

Francesca Costanzo | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

Further reports about: DNA DNA fragment Evaluation Forte Gynecology Noninvasive Obstetrics Risk T18 T21

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Mass spectrometry sheds new light on thallium poisoning cold case
14.12.2018 | University of Maryland

nachricht Protein involved in nematode stress response identified
14.12.2018 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power

The more objects we make "smart," from watches to entire buildings, the greater the need for these devices to store and retrieve massive amounts of data quickly without consuming too much power.

Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and provide that speed and energy savings, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved...

Im Focus: An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes

Personal patches could reduce energy waste in buildings, Rutgers-led study says

What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...

Im Focus: Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...

Im Focus: New Foldable Drone Flies through Narrow Holes in Rescue Missions

A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.

Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...

Im Focus: Topological material switched off and on for the first time

Key advance for future topological transistors

Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the discovery, recognised by the Nobel Prize in Physics only two years ago, that there are two types...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power

14.12.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Tangled magnetic fields power cosmic particle accelerators

14.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

In search of missing worlds, Hubble finds a fast evaporating exoplanet

14.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>