Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New findings show strikingly early seeding of HIV viral reservoir

21.07.2014

Discovery presents new challenges for HIV eradication efforts

The most critical barrier for curing HIV-1 infection is the presence of the viral reservoir, the cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years and avoid elimination by antiretroviral drugs. Very little has been known about when and where the viral reservoir is established during acute HIV-1 infection, or the extent to which it is susceptible to early antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Now a research team led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in collaboration with the U.S. Military HIV Research Program has demonstrated that the viral reservoir is established strikingly early after intrarectal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus monkeys and before detectable viremia.

The findings appear online in the journal Nature.

... more about:
»ART »BIDMC »Deaconess »HIV »HIV-1 »Harvard »Health »MIT »Medical »blood »investigators »monkeys

"Our data show that in this animal model, the viral reservoir was seeded substantially earlier after infection than was previously recognized," explains senior author Dan H. Barouch, MD, PhD, Director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at BIDMC and steering committee member of the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard. "We found that the reservoir was established in tissues during the first few days of infection, before the virus was even detected in the blood."

This discovery coincides with the recently reported news of the HIV resurgence in the "Mississippi baby," who was believed to have been cured by early administration of ART. "The unfortunate news of the virus rebounding in this child further emphasizes the need to understand the early and refractory viral reservoir that is established very quickly following HIV infection in humans," adds Barouch, a Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.

In this new study, the scientific team initiated suppressive ART in groups of monkeys on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after intrarectal SIV infection. Animals treated on day 3 following infection showed no evidence of virus in the blood and did not generate any SIV-specific immune responses. Nevertheless, after six months of suppressive ART, all of the animals in the study exhibited viral resurgence when treatment was stopped.

While early initiation of ART did result in a delay in the time to viral rebound (the time it takes for virus replication to be observed in the blood following cessation of ART) as compared with later treatment, the inability to eradicate the viral reservoir with very early initiation of ART suggests that additional strategies will be needed to cure HIV infection.

"The strikingly early seeding of the viral reservoir within the first few days of infection is sobering and presents new challenges to HIV-1 eradication efforts," the authors write. "Taken together, our data suggest that extremely early initiation of ART, extended ART duration, and probably additional interventions that activate the viral reservoir will be required for HIV-1 eradication."

###

Study coauthors include first author James Whitney of BIDMC and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; BIDMC investigators Srisowmya Sanisetty, Pablo Penaloz-MacMaster, Jinyan Liu, Mayuri Shetty, Lily Parenteau, Crystal Cabral, Jennifers Shields, Stephen Blackmore, Jeffrey Y. Smith, Amanda L. Brinkman, Lauren E. Peter, Sheeba I. Mathew, Kaitlin M. Smith, Erica N. Borducchi; Aliso L. Hill and Daniel I. S. Rosenbloom of Harvard University; Mark G. Lewis of Bioqual, Rockville, MD; Jillian Hattersley, Bei Li, Joseph Hesselgesser, Romas Geleziunas of Gileas Sciences, Foster City, CA; and Merlin L. Robb, Jerome H. Kim and Nelson L. Michael of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

This study was supported, in part, by the US Military Research and Material Command and the US Military HIV Research Program through its cooperative agreement with the Henry M. Jackson Foundation (W81XWH-07-2-0067; W81XWH-11-2-0174); the National Institutes of Health (AI060354; AI078526; AI084794; AI095985; AI096040; AI100645) and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center is a patient care, teaching and research affiliate of Harvard Medical School, and currently ranks third in National Institutes of Health funding among independent hospitals nationwide.

BIDMC is in the community with Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital-Milton, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital-Needham, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital-Plymouth, Anna Jaques Hospital, Cambridge Health Alliance, Lawrence General Hospital, Signature Health Care, Beth Israel Deaconess HealthCare, Community Care Alliance, and Atrius Health. BIDMC is also clinically affiliated with the Joslin Diabetes Center and Hebrew Senior Life and is a research partner of Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center. BIDMC is the official hospital of the Boston Red Sox. For more information, visit http://www.bidmc.org.

Bonnie Prescott | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: ART BIDMC Deaconess HIV HIV-1 Harvard Health MIT Medical blood investigators monkeys

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines
20.11.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Zellbiologie und Genetik

nachricht Researchers find social cultures in chimpanzees
20.11.2018 | Universität Leipzig

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

Max Planck researchers revel the nano-structure of molecular trains and the reason for smooth transport in cellular antennas.

Moving around, sensing the extracellular environment, and signaling to other cells are important for a cell to function properly. Responsible for those tasks...

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Optical Coherence Tomography: German-Japanese Research Alliance hosted Medical Imaging Conference

19.11.2018 | Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

20.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Researchers find social cultures in chimpanzees

20.11.2018 | Life Sciences

When AI and optoelectronics meet: Researchers take control of light properties

20.11.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>