"Probiotics need to interact with cells lining the gut to have a beneficial effect, and if they attach to surfaces in the gut they are more likely to stick around long enough to exert their activity," says Dr Nathalie Juge from the Institute of Food Research. IFR is an Institute of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, which funded the research.
The gut is the largest immune system organ in the body. The cells lining the gut are covered in a protective layer of mucus that is continuously renewed by specialised cells. As well as protecting the gut lining, mucus provides an attachment site for beneficial bacteria that help maintain normal gut function.
Mucus adhesion has been well studied for pathogenic bacteria, but precisely what enables commensal (our gut bacteria) bacteria to stick is not known. In a paper published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, IFR and University of East Anglia scientists have obtained the first crystal structure of a mucus-binding protein.
The protein was obtained from a strain of Lactobacillus reuteri, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in the gastrointestinal tract. Lactic acid bacteria are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics.
These mucus-binding proteins are more abundant in lactic acid bacteria than other types and particularly in strains that inhabit the gut. The presence of the proteins may contribute to the ability of lactic acid bacteria to interact with the host.
The team of scientists found that these mucus-binding proteins also recognise human immunoglobulin proteins. These are an integral part of the immune system. Mucus-binding proteins may therefore also play a wider role in gut health as a site of attachment for bacteria.
"The strain-specificity of these proteins demonstrates the need for the careful molecular design and selection of probiotics," says Dr Juge. "This also opens new avenues of research to study the fundamental roles bacteria play in the gastrointestinal tract."
Andrew Chapple | EurekAlert!
Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY
NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences
19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences