Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

NOAA-sponsored scientists first to map offshore San Andreas Fault and associated ecosystems

01.10.2010
For the first time, scientists are using advanced technology and an innovative vessel to study, image, and map the unexplored offshore Northern San Andreas Fault from north of San Francisco to its termination at the junction of three tectonic plates off Mendocino, Calif.

The team includes scientists from NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service, Oregon State University, the California Seafloor Mapping Program, the U.S. Geological Survey and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The expedition which concludes Sunday is sponsored by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

While the fault on land is obscured by erosion, vegetation and urbanization in many places, scientists expect the subsea portion of the fault to include deep rifts and high walls, along with areas supporting animal life. The expedition team is using high-resolution sonar mapping, subsurface seismic data and imaging with digital cameras for the first-ever three-dimensional bathymetric-structural map that will model the undersea Northern San Andreas Fault and its structure. Little is known about the offshore fault due to perennial bad weather that has limited scientific investigations.

"By relating this 3-D model with ongoing studies of the ancient record of seismic activity in this volatile area, scientists may better understand past earthquakes — in part because fault exposure on land is poor, and the sedimentary record of the northern California offshore fault indicates a rich history of past earthquakes," said Chris Goldfinger, co-principal investigator and marine geologist and geophysicist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Ore. "The model will also benefit geodetic studies of the buildup of energy to help better understand the potential for earthquakes."

More than a century after the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake, the science team is also exploring the fault for lessons associated with the intertwined relationships between major earthquakes and biological diversity. Evidence shows that active fluid and gas venting along fast-moving tectonic systems, such as the San Andreas Fault, create and recreate productive, unique and unexplored ecosystems.

"This is a tectonically and chemically active area," said Waldo Wakefield, co-principal investigator and a research fisheries biologist at NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Newport, Ore. "I am looking for abrupt topographic features as well as vents or seeps that support chemosynthetic life — life that extracts its energy needs from dissolved gasses in the water. I'm also looking at sonar maps of the water column and images of the seafloor for communities of life."

A variety of sensors and systems are being used to help locate marine life including a NOAA autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) named 'Lucille.' Elizabeth Clarke, a NOAA fisheries scientist, is coordinating Lucille's operations and obtaining photographic information about fauna associated with the fault. The AUV and its sensors can dive to nearly one mile (1,500 meters), but depths associated with this expedition will range between approximately 230 to 1100 feet (70 to 350 meters).

Early in the expedition, scientists collected bathymetric and subsurface seismic reflection data to guide them to specific areas of interest for follow-on and more detailed operations. The AUV's high-definition cameras are obtaining multiple images to be stitched into "photo mosaics" showing detailed fault structure and animal life.

The first part of the expedition is operating from Research Vessel Derek M. Baylis, a "green" research vessel primarily powered by sail and owned by Sealife Conservation, a nonprofit organization. The expedition will track the carbon footprint of the 65-foot energy efficient Baylis and compare results to conventional vessels.

AUV operations are being conducted aboard the Research Vessel Pacific Storm, operated by Oregon State University's Marine Mammal Institute. The ship and AUV team joined the expedition offshore of Fort Bragg on Sept. 25.

As the expedition progresses, NOAA's Ocean Explorer website features maps and images of the fault and associated ecosystems, logs from scientists at sea, and lesson plans that align with National Science Education Standards at three grade levels.

NOAA's Office of Exploration and Research uses state-of-the-art technologies to explore the Earth's largely unknown ocean in all its dimensions for the purpose of discovery and the advancement of knowledge.

NOAA's mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Visit us on online or at Facebook.

On the Web:

NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research:
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov
Sealife Conservation:
http://sealifeconservation.org/baylis.html
Oregon State University's Marine Mammal Institute:
http://mmi.oregonstate.edu/research-vessels
California Seafloor Mapping Program:
http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/mapping/csmp/

Fred Gorell | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.noaa.gov

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Despite government claims, orangutan populations have not increased. Call for better monitoring
06.11.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

nachricht Increasing frequency of ocean storms could alter kelp forest ecosystems
30.10.2018 | University of Virginia

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

Im Focus: Coping with errors in the quantum age

Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly

The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

NIH scientists illuminate causes of hepatitis b virus-associated acute liver failure

14.11.2018 | Life Sciences

The unintended consequences of dams and reservoirs

14.11.2018 | Earth Sciences

NIH scientists combine technologies to view the retina in unprecedented detail

14.11.2018 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>